This handbook provides a comprehensive overview to the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model from the market participant’s perspective.

Handbook

NBS Handbook version is updated 28.4.2017.
New version is 2.21 and it is also available in Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian.

  • 1. Introduction

    This chapter provides the basic information about the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model including its benefits and scope as well as the main changes needed when harmonising the settlement procedures in the Nordic countries. Additionally, the purpose and contents of the Nordic Imbalance Settlement (NBS) Handbook along with information sources for national regulations are presented.

    There must always be a balance between supply and consumption of electricity. To achieve this, the TSOs use balancing power procured in the balancing power market. Imbalances arise from uncertainties in plans and failures in generation, consumption and grid. Imbalance settlement is therefore a necessary function in a commercial based electricity market. Historically, Fingrid, Svenska kraftnät and Statnett each have been operating their own imbalance settlement and have been responsible for supervising the balance of the electricity systems in Finland, Sweden and Norway respectively.
    In 2010, Fingrid, Svenska kraftnät and Statnett agreed to form a joint project with the objective to establish a harmonised imbalance settlement model for three of the Nordic countries called Nordic Imbalance Settlement (NBS).
    The model provides harmonized operational preconditions for all Nordic balance responsible parties, regardless of the country or market balance area. Nordic level business processes for reporting, performing settlement, invoicing and collateral management are established. Consequently, similar rules and standards for information exchange are created. The harmonised solution will require changes in all the countries; however, the changes may differ between the countries.

    The most significant change will be the establishment of a new Imbalance Settlement Responsible (ISR) organisation which is owned by the three TSOs; Fingrid, Statnett and Svenska kraftnät with equal share. The new common operational unit (eSett, eSett Oy) is responsible for performing imbalance settlement and invoicing BRPs for imbalances and balancing services. Each TSO is still responsible for national settlement in accordance with national regulations and for verifying that the Imbalance Settlement Model and eSett fulfil such regulations.
    In order to compile all the Instructions and Rules into one easily accessible source, this Nordic Imbalance Settlement Handbook has been created. It is the main source of information needed for each market participant to understand their role and responsibility in the settlement process. A market participant can have several roles in the Imbalance Settlement Model (e.g. a TSO can have roles as BRP, RE and DSO).

    One of the most important goals of the handbook is to provide the information in a structured and understandable way so that all market participants can adapt to and prepare for the Imbalance Settlement Model and eventually work equally in the electricity market in all Nordic countries. Inevitably some national differences will remain which may not be possible to harmonise in the short term and therefore the national regulations are an important source of information, in addition to this handbook. This handbook also includes references to information sources to national regulation.

    • 1.1. Nordic Imbalance Settlement Project

      A common imbalance settlement solution is supported by the governments and regulators in the Nordic countries. Harmonising the imbalance settlement in Finland, Norway and Sweden is regarded as an important step towards a fully functional common end user market. In order to set up this Nordic Imbalance Settlement model, the NBS project has been initiated.

      Imbalance settlement is a natural monopoly and a necessary function in a commercial based electricity market. Traditionally Fingrid, Statnett and Svenska kraftnät have had the role as “Imbalance Settlement Responsible” as well as “System Operator” in Finland, Norway and Sweden respectively. National markets have led to a situation where only few retailers operate in more than one country. Due to differences in the national end user markets, a retailer had to have parallel supply functions in all countries it operates through most of the value chain. Imbalance settlement acts as a significant part of the retailer’s value chain, and different national rules and routines in this area have created barriers for entry to market. Common imbalance settlement is therefore a prerequisite for a common end user market. Objectives of the Imbalance Settlement Model are presented in Table 1 below.

      s12

      Table 1. Objectives of the Nordic Imbalance Settlement model.

    • 1.2. Background

      Regulators in Finland, Norway and Sweden have decided to support the implementation of the Nordic imbalance settlement model and started the processes for the needed regulatory changes in the respective countries. The first NBS design report was published in 2011.

      There has been a close communication with the reference group of stakeholders, both industry and regulators, to discuss the development plans of the Imbalance Settlement Model. Stakeholders have provided their industry opinions on prevailing issues to help the NBS project group to find the best solution for issues in question.

      New versions of the handbook will be published on regular basis. The market participants will be informed about the updated handbook on the web site and by newsletters that the market participants can subscribe on www.eSett.com.

      A Customer Committee will be established to provide a dialogue between eSett and stakeholders. The Customer Committee will consist of market representatives and TSO representative from each NBS Country. In addition, energy market authorities responsible for regulation approval and execution from all NBS countries can participate in the meetings. All the major changes to the NBS model will be discussed in the Customer Committee before they are implemented. Therefore, Customer Committee will have an important role in the development of NBS model. The changes and updates in the NBS model will be recorded in the NBS Handbook.

      The normal update cycle of handbook will be twice a year, once in the spring and once in the autumn, after the operations of eSett have started. However, eSett reserves right to do small updates and clarifications to the NBS Handbook when these changes have an urgent nature and they are clearly seen beneficial to the market and/or the update adds clarity to the processes described in the Handbook.

    • 1.3. Scope

      The main function encompassed by the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is the common imbalance settlement. The model is based on the present harmonised model with two balances; production and consumption. Imbalance power for production and consumption are calculated and settled separately.

      eSett performs the imbalance settlement and manages invoicing as well as collaterals towards the Balance Responsible Parties (BRP) on behalf of the Transmission System Operator (TSO) in each country. All matters directly related to system operations, for example procurement of balancing services, are outside the scope of the Imbalance Settlement Model. The Imbalance Settlement Model will take all necessary volumes into account when calculating the imbalance and furthermore, eSett is responsible for invoicing of the balancing services as a part of the imbalance settlement.

      In parallel with establishing a common Nordic imbalance settlement several other harmonisation processes have been initiated by NordREG. The long term aim is to create a common Nordic end user market for electricity in the Nordic region. A harmonised imbalance settlement acts as one part of this Nordic harmonisation. This handbook describes the imbalance settlement and does not give answers to all harmonisation necessary to establish a common end user market in the Nordic region.

      The reconciliation settlement will not be harmonised on a Nordic level at this stage and current national procedures will apply.

    • 1.4. Benefits

      The model includes several benefits for the electricity market. The Nordic Imbalance Settlement is the platform for a common imbalance settlement in Finland, Norway and Sweden. This means that a BRP always has a single interface (eSett) and one set of rules when settling its imbalances in the Nordic electricity market. The main reason for establishing a common imbalance settlement solution is the creation of a competitive end user market. Increased competition and reduced margins for the electricity providers will give a socioeconomic efficiency gain.

      Competition through a common Nordic retail market is considered essential in order to ensure high quality services at the lowest price, to stimulate innovation and maximise social welfare in the Nordic region.

      In general, the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model will lower the threshold of acting as a BRP since the model enables a common access to all three countries. In addition, the operational procedures of a BRP are simplified. It makes it easier for a retailer to enter the market and it reduces costs, as more BRPs are competing and the price for handling a RE’s balance could therefore be lower. Besides, a RE can more easily choose to act as a BRP rather than RE.

      The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model gives an incentive to improve the quality of the meter data as the DSOs must notify and be responsible for data errors after the imbalance settlement period is closed. Improved data quality will not only improve the quality of the imbalance settlement but also the settlement and invoicing of end customer as both BRPs and REs get access to the same meter data.

      A larger market with a common set of rules will make it more attractive to invest in innovation. BRPs and REs will face a larger potential for innovative solutions, especially for the core IT systems and new payment and credit management solutions. This will also make the vendor market more attractive as the offers from the various service providers will cover a larger market.

      A common Nordic approach to imbalance settlement procedures will have more influence on the EU development than if there were several different Nordic solutions. NBS will, in the long run, lower the operational costs of imbalance settlement because one organisation with one common IT solution will be more efficient than several separate ones. NBS will also make the related costs more transparent as these will be separated from cost elements at each respective TSO. Such transparency is a condition for operational cost efficiency.

    • 1.5. Essential Changes in the Imbalance Settlement

      The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model encompasses several changes for the imbalance settlement. Required changes differ by country due to current solutions and processes. A harmonised model will, in overall, require changes in all countries and all levels of the market. Major changes are described in this sub-chapter and more specific changes by country are described later in the chapters.

      The starting point for the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is the common principles agreed in 2009, consisting of two balances with national imbalance power pricing, cost structures, payment components and gate closure times for reporting settlement data. The common Nordic electricity retail market aims to have a common Nordic balance with common imbalance settlement and reporting, single imbalance settlement agreement and unified gate closure times, though some national differences may apply. The main changes are illustrated in Figure 1 below.

      Slide01

      Figure 1. The essential changes in the imbalance settlement model.

      National changes required by the harmonisation of the settlement have been collected into a table in Appendix 3.

      As the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model harmonises many areas where national differences currently apply, on some areas national practices are still maintained. These result from national differences and requirements relates mostly to other areas than imbalance settlement. It is also to be noted that the development of Nordic Imbalance Settlement is an evolutionary process and progress is being made to enhance harmonisation step by step.

    • 1.6. Regulation

      This chapter includes the information sources to national legislation and regulations per each respective country.

    • 1.7. The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Responsible eSett

      A new service company, eSett, has been established in Finland. The company is owned by Fingrid, Svenska kraftnät and Statnett. The company will act and operate in the role of Imbalance Settlement Responsible. It must be noted, that the national regulations stipulate that each national TSO is still ultimately responsible for balancing operations and imbalance settlement. The company will operate in English but manages customer services by serving all three countries with their local languages. eSett’s relations to the market participants are illustrated in Figure 2.

      Slide02

      Figure 2. Relations between eSett and the market participants.

      • 1.7.1 eSett's Operations

        eSett has many operational tasks. Its daily processes include collection, validation and management of imbalance settlement related data, making collected data available for market participants, conduct preliminary imbalance settlement, follow up reported data and perform final imbalance settlement. Weekly duties for eSett consist of performing the imbalance settlement related invoicing, invoicing of other fees on behalf of TSOs, controlling BRPs’ collaterals and follow-up BRPs in relation to risk and collaterals, and cash management.

        On a regular basis eSett will monitor, publish and follow-up Key Performance Indicator (KPIs) of the imbalance settlement process. eSett does market monitoring, customer support, reporting, and publishing of settlement results (including input data) continuously.

  • 2. Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model

    This chapter presents the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model and its functions in more detail. The roles and responsibilities for the different market participants are described as well as the concept of balance responsibility and legal agreements related to it.

    The purpose of the imbalance settlement is to establish financial balance in the electricity market after the operation hour. Consumption and production imbalances are calculated for each BRP based on the production plans, PX Market trades, bilateral trades and on realised consumption and production. Each BRP is financially liable for the imbalances under its responsibility, balanced by the balancing power procured from the balancing power market operated by the TSOs.

    The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is based on the present harmonised model with separate balances for production and consumption which are calculated and settled separately. At the core of the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is the common operational unit (eSett) which is responsible for imbalance settlement. eSett performs services on behalf of the three TSOs.

    The imbalance settlement agreement is a legal contract that defines eSett and the BRP liabilities, BRP’s collateral requirements and procedures for exclusion and legal items. The main stakeholders in the Imbalance Settlement Model are the Retailers (REs), the Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs), the Distribution System Operators (DSOs), the Transmission System Operators (TSOs), Nominated Electricity Market Operators (NEMOs) and eSett. The definitions of these stakeholders are presented in the Terminology in the beginning of this Handbook.

    The different procedures and operations of the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model are divided into five core functions: settlement structure management, metering and reporting data, settlement, invoicing and reporting.
    In addition the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model includes own functions for collateral management and market behaviour monitoring.

    • 2.1. Imbalance Settlement Model

      The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model ensures a transparent and common imbalance settlement and equal treatment of market participants. The main objective of the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is to perform imbalance settlement across included countries with the same principles and based on two balances; production balance and consumption balance. Both are calculated and settled separately. The model provides harmonised and necessary procedures for imbalance settlement:

      • Settlement structure defines how the information about the imbalance settlement structure and hierarchy (relations) is collected and managed, e.g. information about a new Metering Grid Area (MGA) or the contact information of a market participant. See chapter 3 Settlement structure management
      • Metering and reporting data handles the imbalance settlement data reception, validation, storing and reporting by eSett. See chapter 4 Metering
      • Settlement handles the production and consumption imbalance settlement calculations, quality assurance and publishing of results. See chapter 6 Imbalance settlement
      • Invoicing handles eSett’s invoicing of BRPs, based on realised imbalances. See chapter 8 Invoicing
      • Reporting includes the creation, distribution and publishing of various reports and files provided by eSett. Reporting is also done through the Online Service, Messaging Service and Information Service that are provided to market participants. See chapter 5 Settlement data reporting
      • Collateral management includes control of the BRPs’ collateral demands, as defined and calculated by eSett, as well as follow-up of the placed collateral deposits in comparison to demands. See chapter 9 Collateral and risk management
      • Market behaviour monitoring is based on the analysis of the BRPs’ imbalances. These are analysed by calculating a set of KPIs, which show the BRPs market performance (e.g. quality of reported data, reporting frequency, relative imbalances, absolute imbalances and imbalance costs per unit). The quality of DSOs reporting will also be monitored. See chapter 11 Market behaviour reporting

      All functions in the settlement model are described in Figure 3 below.

      Slide04

      Figure 3. The Imbalance Settlement Model functions.

    • 2.2. Roles, Responsibilities and Requirements

      The main stakeholders (i.e. market participants) in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model along with related roles and responsibilities are presented in the sections below. The validity of a market participant (i.e. the time frame within which the market participant is considered to be active in the market) shall be set after required documents have been received by eSett. The gate closures for the market participants to be active are presented in Table 5 in this document.

      • 2.2.1. Imbalance Settlement Responsible (eSett)

        eSett is responsible for the financial settlement of imbalances in accordance with the imbalance settlement agreement and the handbook:

        • Collect and maintain imbalance settlement structure
        • Perform the imbalance settlement and invoice/credit the BRPs for the balancing power
        • Set the collateral levels so that they cover the imbalance settlement related risk exposure
        • Collect and monitor the BRP´s collaterals and take necessary actions to adjust collaterals when needed
        • Collect fees from BRPs to cover:
          • Balance management and settlement costs of the TSOs
          • A share of the reserve costs and related operational costs for the TSOs
        • Monitor imbalances and assess whether they are in accordance with published guidelines and regulations
        • Operate and provide an imbalance settlement IT solution that the market participants can use to access and report settlement data
        • Report and publish imbalance settlement data including statistics, KPIs and other market information

      • 2.2.2. Transmission System Operator (TSO)

        TSOs have the ultimate responsibility to supervise the physical balance of the electricity system and take actions to rebalance the system.

        • Balance the production/import with the consumption/export during the delivery hour to meet the overall demand of a system frequency at 50 Hz
        • Calculate imbalance adjustment prices per hour and determine imbalance prices
        • Submit necessary information per BRP to eSett for the imbalance settlement of the BRPs; e.g. production plan and activated imbalance adjustment during the delivery hour
        • Act as the financial counterpart towards the BRP for all reserve capacity allocation (eSett is the financial counterpart for the corresponding activated reserves related to the imbalance settlement)
        • Report to eSett the structural information of MBA, MGA and the relation between them.

      • 2.2.3. Distribution System Operator (DSO)

        A DSO is a grid operator with the responsibility to connect producers and consumers to its grid. The DSOs have the responsibility to meter production, consumption and exchange with other grids in addition to report the metered data to the entitled parties. This includes closed distribution system operators. The DSO has several obligations in relation to imbalance settlement. DSO’s responsibilities are the following:

        • Register REs’ metering points regarding production and consumption in the respective MGAs
        • Operate the metering system and submit required metering data to the REs, BRPs, TSO and eSett¹ (country specific reporting from DSOs to REs and BRPs will not be subject to change in the NBS model)
        • Calculate and report load profile shares (according to national guidelines)
        • Calculate the final profiled consumption and the reconciled energy when all metering for a grid area is completed (according to national guidelines, see sub chapter 6.7. Reconciliation)
        • Imbalance corrections, after the imbalance settlement reporting is closed, shall be settled between the DSO and RE. The exact procedure for settlement of imbalance corrections will be developed by the energy industry in each country.

         

        In Finland, the current imbalance settlement network areas will form the metering grid areas in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement and there must be one responsible market participant for metering and reporting settlement (metering responsible) data of the metering grid area to eSett and other market participants which have rights for the data.

        This kind of metering responsible party can be a party having DSO network licence or closed network licence or is registered as a metering responsible. If there is not a clear responsible participant for metering and reporting settlement data of the special metering grid areas (e.g. production or industrial metering grid areas) then a balance responsible party or an open supplier for this metering grid area is responsible for metering and reporting imbalance settlement data. These metering responsibles shall have a role as a DSO in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement.

        All Finnish DSOs in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement need to register their own metering grid areas to Fingrid as a TSO.

        In Sweden, market participants that have concession for a line or area have to be approved by the National Energy Authority in order to have a role as a DSO.

        In Norway, a trading licensee who owns a transmission grid or is responsible for network services can have a role as DSO. Network services are defined as one or more of the following:

        1. transmission of power, including operation and maintenance of and investment in grid installations
        2. tariffing
        3. metering, settlement and customer service
        4. supervision and safety
        5. co-ordination of operations
        6. required contingency measures
        7. required power system planning.

         

        ¹DSO’s are responsibility to report BRPs’ metering data to eSett. The responsibility is defined through the legislation and directives by the authorities in each country. eSett will have no duty nor practical possibility to ensure the correctness and completeness of the settlement information

      • 2.2.4. Balance Responsible Party (BRP)

        A BRP is a market participant having a valid agreement with eSett and TSO of the area of operation. The BRP’s responsibilities are defined in the balancing agreement, imbalance settlement agreement and in the handbook:

        • Have a valid imbalance settlement agreement with eSett and provide the required collaterals
        • Plan balanced schedules on an hourly basis
        • Submit plans per RO to the TSO
        • Submit bilateral trade information to eSett and verify the correctness of the bilateral trades submitted by its counterparts, also on RE level.²
        • Act as the financial counterpart for the settlement of imbalances, activated imbalance adjustment and reconciliation according to national guidelines
        • Keep the imbalance settlement structure information up to date
        • Verify all relevant data reported by eSett, and notify deviations
        • Inform eSett of which REs the BRP is responsible for, for consumption and production per MGA

         

        ²Balance Responsible Partys in Sweden will submit bilateral trade information to Svenska kraftnät

      • 2.2.5. Retailer (RE)

        A RE sells electricity to final consumers, purchase production or perform trade activity. The RE’s responsibility regarding imbalance settlement is:

        • All REs operating within the countries involved in Nordic Imbalance Settlement have to register to eSett according to gate closure specified in Table 5.
        • Have an agreement with a BRP for production and consumption in all MGAs where the RE is operating
          • For Finland this requirement will be adapted in order to facilitate the chain of open suppliers. This model allows that a RE may have an agreement with a BRP, or with another RE who then has an agreement with a BRP. This is illustrated in Figure 4

         

        Figure 4 Handling of “chain of open delivery” in the Finnish market area.

        • A RE can use one BRP for consumption and one BRP for production in the same MGA and use different BRPs in different MGAs, this division is highlighted in the following Figure 5 where Finland is used as an example.

        Slide06

        Figure 5. Illustrated model for one Retailer using different BRPs per MGA.

      • 2.2.6. Nominated Electricity Market Operator (NEMO)

        The responsibilities for Nominated Electricity Market Operator (currently Nord Pool in NBS-area), in its role as power exchange and in regard to the imbalance settlement are the following:

        • Report trade data for Day ahead- and Intraday trades (PX market trades, currently Elspot and Elbas) per BRP/RE and MBA to eSett (and TSO where needed).
        • Report cross border trades (PX Market Flows) with other power exchanges (market coupling) to TSOs.
        • In addition, Nominated Electricity Market Operator, in its role as power exchange, conducts market surveillance and reports any suspected breach of applicable regulations by the market participants to the national regulators.

      • 2.2.7. Service Provider (SP)

        Service Provider provides operational balances management and settlement services for the market participants e.g. BRPs, REs and DSOs. According to what services are provided to the market participants, the service provider has rights to perform the corresponding tasks towards eSett and imbalance settlement system.

        The service provider can for example provide services below:

        • report and enter settlement data
        • verify calculated imbalances or
        • handle collateral management on the online service on behalf of the market party

        One market participant can have several Service Providers (for each service another Service Provider) and one Service Provider can serve several market parties.

    • 2.3. Calendar and Time Zones

      The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model utilises a combined Nordic calendar, which consolidates the public national holidays from all involved countries. You can find the calendar on eSett’s homepage and in appendix 5, Nordic Calendar. No invoicing shall be performed during a public holiday and they will be taken into account in the terms of payment in settlement related invoicing.

      As an example if a certain day is considered as a public holiday in Sweden, it will be considered as a public holiday in all involved countries.

      The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model will be operated in Central European Time (CET)/Central European Summer Time (CEST) and a 24-hour clock (10 o´clock in the evening will be written as 22:00) in operation (for example in invoicing and imbalance settlement), which is required to be supported by all market participants acting with eSett. The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model will also use winter and summer time change, last Sunday in March will have 23 hours and last Sunday in October will have 25 hours.

      The settlement structure management (e.g. retailer balance responsibility, RBR) will be complied with national legislations. In Finland the settlement structures will be managed in Eastern European Time (EET)/Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) in Sweden the settlement structures will be managed in Swedish Normal Time (pending final approval of the secondary law), final approval is expected before end of 2016. In Norway there will be no changes compared to the current situation.

    • 2.4. Imbalance Responsibility and Agreements

      Participating as a BRP in the electricity market settled by eSett requires a valid Balance Agreement between BRP and respective TSO, as well as valid Imbalance Settlement Agreement between BRP and eSett (Figure 6. BRP agreements.). The scope of the imbalance settlement agreement will be limited to issues regarding the imbalance settlement and invoicing of activated imbalance adjustment. The Balance Agreement regulates balance management related issues.

      Slide07

      Figure 6. BRP agreements.

      As before, a BRP must comply with the TSOs requirements if the BRP is providing reserves in the balancing markets.

      • 2.4.1. Imbalance Settlement Agreement

        The Imbalance Settlement Agreement between eSett and BRP regulates the relations between the parties and settlement requirements that the BRP must comply with. The following topics are included in the imbalance settlement agreement:

        • BRP’s rights and obligations
        • eSett´s rights and obligations
        • Fees and taxes
        • Invoicing and payment process and requirements
        • Collaterals procedures and obligations
        • Imbalance settlement rules as defined in the Handbook
        • Parties’ contractual liability
        • Procedures when agreement is breached by the BRP
        • Term and termination of the agreement
        • Procedures when the agreement and its appendices are amended
        • Dispute resolution and governing law

      • 2.4.2. Entering into Agreement

        In order to enter into agreement with eSett, the BRP shall contact eSett. Valid balance service agreements, it´s appendixes, instructions and contact information can be found on eSett’s web site (will be published in the summer 2015). The current BRP`s will be notified when the information is available.

    • 2.5. Company Data Model

      This chapter is meant to clarify the different options market participants have when organizing themselves for the new imbalance settlement model. As it has been previously mentioned, the new imbalance settlement model is among other things meant to lower the barriers for operating in more than one country. However, national laws and the imbalance settlement system set certain requirements and limitations under which the market participants are expected to act when utilizing the possibility. Company data model ties important concepts together by connecting country, company, market participant role, collaterals, invoices, balance account, agreements, coding scheme and related market participant code. In principle, there are three different ways to act in several countries and these possibilities are demonstrated in the following with the help of an illustrative table, which presents the case of a BRP. This chapter refrains from favoring any of the presented options and it is thus left for each company to weigh and choose by themselves, which they wish to opt.

      companydatamodel

      Table 2. Company data model in NBS.

      In the table above the first option describes a situation, where two separate companies with own business ids are established, or already exists, in order to operate the BRP roles in two different countries. In practice this set up means that both market participant roles will have own collaterals, separate invoices, own settlement accounts, own agreements with eSett, one agreement with both TSOs depending on the countries the BRPs operate in, and finally, own separate market participant codes, which are used for example for messaging. In this case these codes may be according to local coding schemes when they only operate in one country. The agreements here are Imbalance Settlement Agreement with eSett and Balancing Agreements with TSOs. In this option the companies are registered to different countries.

      Second option is based on only one company which holds two separate BRP roles. This results in two separate collaterals, invoices, settlement accounts, agreements and market participant codes.

      In order to prevent having to place several collaterals, the third option could be considered. This option gives the possibility to organize the company structure based on only one company and one BRP role, which operates in more than one country. However, differences in legislation between countries set limitations to this scenario in case the company is active in Norway. Due to the Norwegian legislation it is mandatory that in this option the company is registered in Norway since it is required that BRPs acting in Norway are locally registered companies.

      One market participant role results in one set of collaterals, as they are role-specific. In this scenario the company will receive as many invoices as there are number of countries the BRP operates in, since the invoice is always country-specific. The number of required settlement accounts depends on the number of used currencies, which means that if the BRP uses one common currency it is sufficient to have only one settlement account. For agreements same applies as to collaterals: they are role-specific. Logically, one BRP role requires only one market participant code as long as it is not any of the national codes but either EIC or GS1 code. However, for market participant roles related to Norwegian company, it is mandatory to use GS1 codes.

  • 3. Settlement Structure Management

    Chapter three presents the settlement structure and hierarchy management in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model. It describes the reporting responsibilities and the rules and guidelines for reporting changes in the structural information as well as reporting schedules and methods.

    The settlement structure is one of the key elements in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model. Each market participant is responsible for informing and updating structural information. Structural information is information about market participants and their relations to each other (e.g. the relationship between a BRP and an RE) and to the Market Entities and Market Entity Connections (e.g. the relationship between a RE and a MGA). Every market participant has to register for acceptance to operate in the market. The participants themselves are responsible for registering and keeping their own information up to date.

    Every company taking part in the Imbalance settlement needs to register in the imbalance settlement system. Company information will be registered together with information about the different roles that the company operates. A company can have several different roles (BRP, DSO, RE, SP). Every role the company operates will be registered as a market participant. It is also possible for a company to have multiple market participants of the same role.

    eSett will maintain the structure information, based on the information provided by DSOs, BRPs and TSOs. DSOs are responsible for updating the structure related to metering points in the MGAs they are accountable for (e.g. retailer’s consumption and production within a MGA) and BRPs are responsible for updating the structure of their obligations (e.g. which RE in the different MGA they are responsible for).

    The market participants shall enter changes in the settlement structure to the Online Service, provided by eSett. After the changes are entered into eSett´s imbalance settlement system, the changes are validated and approved. Once the changes are approved, they will be used in the imbalance settlement. The structure information is published on the Online Service where market participants can view the up to date settlement structure information. Restrictions to view is managed with access rights in accordance with legislation. The settlement structure information will also be provided by a XML-file to the market participants in the later phase after NBS go live. The information is provided to the DSOs and BRPs and contains the market participants’ settlement information that will be the basis for the imbalance settlement.

    Furthermore, the market participants will also be able to view and download the area specific structure for all countries. That is, information for MGA master data, MBA master data, MGA-MGA relations and MGA-MBA relations. The content of the MGA and MBA master data will be area specific information, such as type, name, area identification etc.

    • 3.1. Settlement Structure

      Up-to-date structural information is essential to manage the reporting and other imbalance settlement functions. Settlement structure contains the information related to different market participants: TSOs, DSOs, BRPs and REs, and information on the relationship between the market participants.

      Information regarding the BRPs responsibility for a RE in all MGAs, and during which period of time, is essential to enable correct reporting of data and calculation of imbalances. One common and public overview with this information is therefore developed and maintained in eSett’s imbalance settlement system.

      Every entity of structural information has a validity period. The given start and end date defines the period of time during which the specific entity is considered as active. The end date is not required when creating new structure, but shall be entered when the end date is firmly known.

      In Figure 7 a description of structure elements and their relations can be found.

      Detailed description of the interface and the process to manage the structural information will be provided as a User Guide on the Online Service.

      Slide08

       

      Figure 7 Illustrative example of structure elements and their relations.

    • 3.2. Market Participants

      The settlement structure information is related to different types of roles (RE, BRP, DSO and TSO). One company may have multiple roles and each of these roles shall be presented by a separate Market Participant that operate in the electricity market. It is also possible for a company to have multiple market participants with the same role. In the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model there is always a connection between the structure information and specific market participants, being valid for a specified period of time. The roles are defined and described in the Table 3 below

      s29

      Table 3. The Market Participants in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model

      • 3.2.1. Unbundling rule

        Unbundling rules define which roles that can be performed by one single company. Currently there are some national differences in this legislations that will impact the imbalance settlement.

        Unbundling rules in Sweden and Finland defines that REs and DSOs must belong to separate companies. The only exception is in Finland where DSOs with non-concessional grid (e.g production and industrial metering grid areas) can belong to the same company as the RE.

        A company operating in Norway may currently inhabit all roles if the company has less than 100 000 grid customers. This legislation is currently under consideration and may change. A DSO responsible for supply of last resort to end users are also obliged to register a separate Market Participant as RE for this activity. This RE will also be used for the purchase of grid losses in those cases where the DSO performs this activity itself. This Market participant may also be registered as BRP if the DSO wish to do so.

    • 3.3. Market Entities

      In order to organize the settlement information in a structured way, the structure information is also related to a market entity (ME). These are used to further specify the areas where consumption, trade and exchange occur, including also the power generator and regulation object. The defined MEs and the corresponding descriptions are shown below in Table 4

      Table 4. Market Entities in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model

    • 3.4. Market Entity Connections

      A large amount of settlement information is exchanged between market participants within the Nordic imbalance settlement. The information is organised into so called Market Entity Connections (MEC). The MECs are central in the imbalance settlement structure as they facilitate reporting of all the time series with settlement data.

      MECs are different kinds of connections either between market participants (e.g. bilateral trades between parties) or between market participants and market entities (e.g. market participant’s metered consumption in MGA or market participant’s production per Production Unit). MEC’s time series data is the core of the imbalance settlement.

      Table 5 explains the MECs utilised in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model (see 5.4.2.4).

      s31

      Table 5. Market Entity Connections in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model

    • 3.5. Settlement Structure Management Function

      eSett receives structure information from market participants containing imbalance settlement structure information that should be added, updated, or closed in the imbalance settlement system. The structure information is entered via the Online Service and validated by eSett. When the settlement structure has been updated, eSett publishes the settlement structure to market participants in the Online Service.
      Every participant in the electricity wholesale market will have to apply to eSett for acceptance into the settlement structure. The participants themselves are responsible for registering and verifying that their information is up-to-date. Responsibilities regarding the settlement structure information management are explained in the following sub-chapters.

      • 3.5.1. eSett

        eSett hosts the common settlement structure information. The related responsibilities are the following:

        • Setting BRPs as active when the imbalance settlement agreement is set into force and related requirements are fulfilled (Appendix 1)
        • Setting BRPs as inactive when the imbalance settlement agreement has been terminated
        • Setting DSOs as active when they fulfil all requirements as DSO (licence from the local authority, ID, certificate, testing)
        • Setting DSOs as inactive when DSOs activity has ended
          • The DSO has for example been merged with another DSO
        • Setting REs as active when they fulfil the requirements set upon them by the regulators
          • Since an RE may have a different BRP in every MGA it’s most efficient that eSett perform this control instead of many DSOs or BRPs controlling the same RE
          • An active RE will be able to handle consumption, trade and production
        • Setting REs as inactive when their activity has ended

      • 3.5.2. Retailer - RE

        RE is responsible for reporting the following structure information to eSett:

        • Registering company as an RE
        • Retailer initiates the switch of supplier process. This process can only be initiated when the RE has a valid BRP in the MGA where the delivery will take place
          • Update own contact information

      • 3.5.3. Balance Responsible Party - BRP

        BRP is responsible for reporting the following structure information to eSett:

        • Registering company as a BRP
        • Registering for which REs they take on the responsibility for production imbalance, and in which MGAs. It is the new BRP that is responsible for applying the correct structure
        • Registering for which REs they take on the responsibility for consumption/trade imbalance, and in which MGAs. It is the new BRP that is responsible for applying the correct structure
        • Manage MECs for bilateral trade for REs that they are responsible for. Registration of a bilateral trade can be done by one of the BRPs, the counterpart will then be informed that a bilateral trade has been registered with this BRP
        • Assigning PU to the correct RO
        • Provide the TSO with sufficient information to register ROs
        • Update own contact information

      • 3.5.4. Distribution System Operator - DSO

        DSOs have the main responsibility in maintaining the correct and up to date settlement structure. DSO is responsible for reporting the following structure information to eSett:

        • Registering company as a DSO
        • Update the structure for consumption MECs within the MGA
          • Provide following information: Retailer, MGA, Consumption Type and Validity
        • Update the structure for PU within the MGA
          • Provide following information: MGA, Production Type, Validity, Production Unit ID and Capacity
        • Update the structure for production MEC
          • Assign a RE to the PU
        • The DSO must select a RE for every MGA to handle the MGA-imbalance and MGA-exchange trade
        • Update own contact information

      • 3.5.5. Nominated Electricity Market Operator - NEMO

        NEMO is required to register as a BRP in the settlement structure. In addition NEMO is responsible for reporting occurred PX Market Trades (currently Nord Pool´s Day-ahead and Intraday trades in NBS area). NEMO is responsible for reporting the following structure information to eSett:

        • Registering company as a BRP
        • Manage MECs for Day-ahead trades
        • Manage MECs for Intraday trades
        • Manage MEC for Day-ahead flow
        • Manage MEC for Intraday flow
        • Update own contact information

      • 3.5.6. Transmission System Operator - TSO

        TSOs have, in addition to below mentioned responsibilities, the similar responsibilities as the BRPs (if applicable):

        • Determine the MGAs
        • Determine which MGAs that will be included in a MBA
        • Manage MEC for MGA exchange
        • Manage MECs for imbalance adjustment
        • Manage MECs for plans per RO
        • Manage of ROs

      • 3.5.7. Reporting Schedule and Gate Closure Times

        The settlement structure information is to be registered according to the defined gate closure times. A description and proposal of the gate closure times per responsible party can be found in Table 6.

        s35

        s36

        Table 6. Gate closure times for reporting structure information

        Example of the gate closure times for reporting structure information:

        New RE that should be registered in the Nordic market:

        1. The new RE shall provide eSett with required information to register the company. eSett register the new RE and set the RE as valid at the earliest starting from 14 days after all mandatory information has been provided

        2. From the day that eSett registers the new RE it will be available for the BRP to register the BRP-RE relation for the specific MGA. Valid start date can earliest be the same as new RE start date but not earlier than 14 days from when the BRP registers the responsibility

        3. When the BRP-RE relation is approved by eSett, the DSO will be able to submit the MGA structure. Valid from date can earliest be the same as the BRP-RE relation valid start date, given that the DSO submits the structural information at least 3 days before the delivery day.

        Already registered and valid RE in the Nordic market:

        1. A registered and valid RE is already available for the BRP in order to register the BRP-RE relation in the specific MGA

        2. When the BRP-RE relation is approved by eSett, the DSO will be able to submit the MGA structure. Valid from date can earliest be the same as the BRP-RE relation valid start date, given that the DSO submits the structural information at least 3 days before the delivery day.

        In both examples, the process will take at least 14 days.

      • 3.5.8. Structure Information to the Market Participants

        The published structure information in the Online Service will also be provided with a XML-file. Table 8 shows an example of structure information regarding a DSO that will be provided via file. The example is based on the format of the settlement information that will be published on https://www.ediel.org.

        s37

        Table 7 Structure report MGA example

  • 4. Metering

    Chapter four presents the settlement data metering activities that requires to be performed by DSOs to provide required information to eSett to perform imbalance settlement. It defines the different types of metered data, how these shall be handled by DSOs and how the metering data shall be validated and sufficient quality ensured.

    The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model organises all metered data, exchange, consumption and production, into MGAs. Each MGA is connected to a single MBA and DSO, thus connecting the metered consumption and production as MECs to the imbalance settlement structure.

    Reporting of metering data (as further described in chapter 5) is considered as a responsibility of a DSO in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model, including the aggregation of data to RE level. eSett is responsible for aggregation of received metering data on a BRP level for imbalance settlement purposes.

    Considering the critical role of the metering data from the imbalance settlement perspective, it is thus important to secure sufficient quality on reported data to ensure accurate imbalance settlement, by minimising variations caused by data quality (e.g. missing or incorrect values) and its timely submission within specified gate closures. Therefore the quality of reported data will be closely monitored by eSett and reported to related market participants by specific reports and KPIs (see chapter 10 for further information).

    This chapter defines and describes the different types of metering data utilised in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model for exchange, production and consumption and how these are expected to be handled by the DSOs in order to report these to eSett.

    MGAs are defined nationally by respective TSOs in accordance to national rules and legislation. Therefore practices can differ between the countries participating in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement.

    In Finland MGAs for imbalance settlement and for consumption and production have been defined in cooperation with Fingrid as a TSO, BRPs and DSOs. The starting point is that the current MGAs, defined in the imbalance settlement, may be implemented in the Nordic imbalance settlement model. Every MGA has to have one responsible DSO for metering and reporting (licence for DSOs networks, licence for closed networks or agreed with Fingrid). There has to be one RE responsible for MGA imbalance within a one MGA.

    In Norway the MGAs are defined by the imbalance settlement responsible with support from TSO and DSO. The DSO of the MGA must be responsible for metering and reporting of all metering points within the MGA. All metering points within the MGA must belong to the same MBA.

    In Sweden MGAs for imbalance settlement and for consumption and production have been defined in cooperation with Svenska kraftnät as a TSO. The principle is that the MGA is electrically connected and the distribution is limited to one market balance area. Every MGA has to have one responsible DSO for metering and reporting. One RE is responsible for the losses within a MGA.

    • 4.1. Metered Data by Types

      There are three different main types of metered data (or types of metering points) utilised in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model. The identified metering data types are the following:

      • Exchange metering point to other MGAs:
        • Hourly metered exchange with adjacent MGAs
      • Production metering points:
        • Hourly metered production within the MGA
      • Consumption metering points: Hourly metered consumption from the MGA, divided into following subtypes:
        • Metered consumption
        • Pumped (only in Norway)
        • Pumped storage (only in Norway)
        • Interruptible (only in Sweden)
        • Industry over 50 MW (only in Sweden)
        • PU Own consumption (only in Finland). Production units own consumption can be separated from the metered consumption by using this type
      • Hourly profiled consumption, divided into following subtypes:
        • Profiled consumption
        • Pumped (only in Norway)
        • PU Own consumption (only in Finland)
      • Hourly losses, may be divided into following subtypes:
        • Metered grid losses
        • Profiled grid losses

       

      Losses shall be calculated in Finland as stated in chapter 5.4.2.4 and it’s not required to separate losses for both metered and profiled losses (metered shall be used and reported to eSett).

      The different consumption types are explained in more details in chapter 5.4.2.4.

      It is to be noted that a number of country specific types of consumption metering points shall be utilised in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model as highlighted above.

    • 4.2. Replace or Estimate Missing Values

      eSett do not regulate how the estimation of missing measurement values shall be done. Practices differ between the countries today. Below information about the national principles has been provided.

      The Finnish Energy industry´s directions of how the missing values shall be estimated or replaced are presented in the document “Tuntimittaussuositus 2010 (päivitetty 28.1.2014)”. The document can be found at http://energia.fi/sahkomarkkinat/sanomaliikenne/ohjeet-ja-suositukset

      The Swedish directions on how the missing values shall be estimated or replaced are presented in “Elmarknadshandboken”. The document can be found at: http://elmarknadshandboken.se/Dokumentation/Texter/NEMHB.pdf

      The Norwegian Elhub project has described the requirements for quality assurance that shall be performed by the DSO before reporting to Elhub. These requirements are presented as standards for validation, estimation and change of metered values. The Norwegian name of the document is “Standard for Validering, Estimering og Endring (VEE) av AMS måleverdier” and can be found at Elhub.no.

    • 4.3. MGA Exchange Meters and MGA Exchanges

      The MGA exchange meters measure the energy flows between the adjacent Metering Grid Areas. The meters measure the exchange in the border points. The DOSs are responsible for the MGA exchange meters (e.g. reporting the values to the imbalance settlement).

      The MGA exchange means exchange of energy sum that occurs between adjacent Metering Grid Areas. These sums shall be used in eSett’s imbalance settlement. Both DSOs of the adjacent MGAs shall report the sums to the imbalance settlement, or the DSOs can agree that one of them shall report the sums.

    • 4.4. Production Metering

      All production metering in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model is based on netted metering. Netted metering is defined as metered production after own consumption used for power generation has been subtracted. Until legislation in Finland, Norway and Sweden have been harmonised, the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model will handle both gross and net metered production, which can be metered, aggregated and reported in accordance to principles defined below.

      An industry site that also has its own production units are not allowed to net the production with their consumption. Production and consumption should be metered and reported separately to eSett’s imbalance settlement.
      The definition of own consumption has not been harmonized. Information about the national principles has been provided below

      • In Finland the legislation for own consumption of the production plant can be found in the document “Kauppa – ja teollisuusministeriön asetus voimalaitosten omakäyttölaitteista”. The document can be found at: http://www.finlex.fi.

      • In Sweden there is no legislation describing own consumption of the production plant.

      • In Norway the definition of own consumption of the production plant can be found in the document “Forskrift om elsertifikater” in chapter 3 § 16 “Bestemmelser om måledata og korreksjonsfaktor” .

      • 4.4.1. Description of Net Metering for Production

        Net metering has been implemented so that both generator and own consumption of the production unit are metered by the same meter. This is illustrated in the Figure 8 below. In this case, the meter is a so called two-way meter and it is possible to measure energy in both directions. If production energy exceeds the own consumption, it is reported as production. If there is no production during the hour the own consumption will be reported as consumption (consumption type: PU Own Consumption) and handled in the consumption balance.

        Slide09

        Figure 8. Net metering of production

      • 4.4.2. Description of Gross Metering for Production

        Gross generation is defined as the sum of the electrical energy production by all the generating sets concerned, measured at the output terminals of the main generator. In Figure 9 the principle of gross metering has been described. Meter 1 is for production metering and meter 2 is the metering of own consumption. Meter 1 will be the reported production of the PU. Metered values from Meter 2 will be aggregated together with other meters that the RE has in this MGA before it is reported to eSett.

        Slide10

        Figure 9. Gross metering of production

      • 4.4.3. Description of Households with both Production and Consumption “Prosumers” and Industry with Consumption

        Net metering of PUs with own consumption and an additional consumption (C) may be set up according to Figure 10 (no meter 2 is required for sites with main fuse up to 3x63A in Finland). The additional consumption (C) (e.g. a factory) may not be netted with the production. Only netting of own consumption behind meter 2 is allowed.

        Slide11

        Figure 10. Meter for production, own consumption and consumption

        Consumption (C) is calculated as: C = (1 – 2)

        If the production (2) is ≥ 1 MW the production (2) shall be reported separate from consumption (C). If the DSO doesn´t have this task the plant owner is obliged to organize the site as an own MGA and report production and consumption.

        As defined above minor production (e.g. < 1 MW in Finland) can be netted with consumption e.g. in the case when there will be wind turbines and solar panels in a household level. This production will deduct consumption and can be netted with RE’s aggregated consumption in the specific metering grid area. But when this kind of minor production exceeds RE’s consumption in the MGA, it has to be reported separately. Practically (based on e.g. the data formats) the PUs for this kind of minor production need to be established and it’s possible to create a virtual PU to all RE’s minor production in a one specific MGA. It’s always possible to report minor production and consumption separately.

        In Finland reserve power generators of over 1 MW or other low-power machines only intended for temporary use and disturbance management purposes are allowed to settle in the consumption imbalance.

    • 4.5. Consumption Metering

      The DSO should, in an hourly settled meter point, meter values at each shift of hour. The DSO is recommended to perform data acquisition as soon as possible after the delivery day.

      The handling of consumption metering will be done in accordance with existing national rules.

  • 5. Settlement Data Reporting

    Chapter five presents the settlement reporting activities. It describes the reporting responsibilities and time schedules for each of the market entity connections. Moreover, it describes the management of bilateral trade corrections and metering grid area exchange corrections.

    The settlement data shall be reported to eSett via market messages or via Online Service. The reported data is further aggregated by eSett in order to establish the consumption and production imbalances. Gate closure times differ depending on the data that is being reported. If one or more settlement data exceed the gate closure time then the whole message will be rejected.

    The metered data (production per PU, aggregated metered consumption data per RE and MGA, and MGA exchange data) shall be reported by the DSOs. The BRPs are responsible for reporting bilateral trades within Finnish and Norwegian MBAs to eSett. Bilateral trades within Swedish MBAs are reported to Svenska kraftnät. They shall in addition report plans per RO and bids for up and down regulation to the TSOs. BRPs are also obliged to keep their plans updated, i.e. report updated values. Nord Pool as a Nominated Market Operator (NEMO) is responsible for reporting Day-ahead and Intraday trade results to the TSO and eSett. TSOs also report binding production plans, reserves and prices to eSett.

    eSett performs validations on received data and publishes it in the Online Service. The settlement calculations and the weekly invoicing are then performed in the imbalance settlement IT system.

    The verification of the bilateral trades and MGA exchanges is performed by verifying that values reported by the two counterparts are equal. If the values do not match, they will be changed according to pre-defined correction rules and a notification will be sent to both counterparts. The parties may however decide that only one party will report the values.

    In the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model, the hourly data is collected daily, reported within 2 days and updated within the stipulated 13 days.

    The reporting requirements for the DSO regarding the reporting flows and schedule are regulated by national laws. The presented schedule is the requirements that have been forwarded to the regulators.

    All reporting in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model shall be performed in accordance to the specification laid down in the market model for data exchange document Business Requirement Specification for Data Exchange in NBS (BRS). The latest version of the document can be found at the following address: https://www.ediel.org/.

    This obligation is regulated as follows:

    • Sweden: Regulated in the EDIEL-agreement between Market participants and Svk.
    • Finland: Responsibilities are regulated in the secondary law and market participants should follow the instructions given by the TSO and instructions/procedures agreed in the energy field.
    • Norway: Responsibilities are regulated in the secondary law and market participants should follow the instructions given in the Ediel User guide

     

    The reporting shall be performed with the accuracy, signs and units in according to the description below. For information on the reporting time periods and gate closures see chapter 5.3.

    In cases where service providers are used to report e.g. metered values on behalf of a DSO, it is to be noted that the formal responsibility still remains with the DSO in accordance to national legislation.

    • 5.1. Reporting Requirements

      • 5.1.1. Unit and Accuracy

        The unit of reported values can be in kWh or MWh according to the BRS. The resolution is maximum in Watthour, i.e. max 3 decimals for kWh and max 6 decimals for MWh.

        In the current state there are national differences in terms of use of unit and decimals:

        • Sweden: according to industry agreement, meter values shall be reported in kWh with up to three decimals, rounding is not permitted
        • Norway: meter values shall be reported with kWh no decimals or MWh with 3 decimals.
        • Finland: hourly measurement shall be reported with 10 Wh accuracy. This requirement is specified in detail in the Finnish Energy industry´s direction “Tuntimittaussuositus 2010 (päivitetty 28.1.2014)”. The document can be found at http://energia.fi/sahkomarkkinat/sanomaliikenne/ohjeet-ja-suositukset chapter 7.5.

      • 5.1.2. Sign Handling

        Sign handling when reporting data to eSett is given by the Business Requirement Specification for Data Exchange in NBS (BRS). When viewing data in the imbalance settlement system, the following will apply: Aggregated consumption and power exported from the MGA to an adjacent MGA will have negative sign. Meter values from production units and import of power to the MGA from an adjacent MGA will have a positive sign.

      • 5.1.3. Status of Reported Values

        All reported meter values have to be marked with a status (Quantity Quality according to BRS) indicating the quality of the metered values. The default status for all values is “Metered, i.e. Quantity Quality is only used if the status is ≠ “Metered” Following statuses can, in addition to “Metered” be set.

        • Temporary
        • Estimated, approved for billing
        • Does not exist (only used for meter values on Metering point level)

    • 5.2. Reporting Data Flows

      The figures below illustrate the reporting data flows and are divided into: Reporting before delivery day, Reporting after delivery day and Reporting after the imbalance settlement is closed.

      Figure 11 Reporting before delivery hour

      Figure 12 Reporting after the delivery hour (1-13 days)

      figure12new

      Figure 13 Reporting after the imbalance settlement has been closed (13 days)

      The Table 8 below shows how eSett reports information to the market participants and the communication channel.

      table9new

      Table 8 Information types

    • 5.3. Reporting Schedules

      Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model utilises the Nordic calendar in all reporting schedule (CET), similar to Nord Pool Spot practices.

      The basis for the reporting schedule for the DSOs is a 13-day period during which the settlement data must be reported to eSett. The DSOs will report meter data at the latest 10.00, the second day after delivery day. Based on the reported data, eSett conducts a preliminary imbalance settlement. The DSOs are then able to update the data until 12.00 on the 13th day after delivery day and which is considered as the final reporting day. During the next working day after the final reporting day eSett performs and publishes the final result of the imbalance settlement on the Online Service and on the Information Service.
      In Norway the settlement data reported by the DSOs should still be reported 3 working days after the settlement week, until the Elhub takes over this reporting.
      Based on the Finnish legislation the DSOs in Finland are able to report delivery day settlement data in EET/EEST until the 12 day at 00:00 EE(S)T after the delivery day.
      An illustrative picture of the settlement data reporting schedule for one delivery day is presented in Figure 14. In the figure, metered data for Sunday in week 1 shall be reported at the latest on the 2nd day after the delivery day, i.e. on Tuesday in week 2. Updates must be reported at the latest 13 days after delivery day, i.e. on Saturday in week 3 in the illustration below. The data may be reported daily for each day or just the changed values. By the end of Sunday in week 2, data for Monday in week 1 is considered as final and may not be reported on Monday in week 3. By the end of Saturday in week 3 all metered data for the whole week 1 is considered to be final and the final settlement is performed. Invoicing of week 1 is done on the first working day after the final reporting day (see more information about the invoicing in Chapter 8 Invoicing)

      Slide15

      Figure 14. Time schedule for reporting imbalance settlement data.

    • 5.4. Reporting Responsibility

      The reporting roles and responsibilities per each Market Participant are presented in the chapters below. Data reporting tasks have been divided by the market role and the time when the data reporting takes place. In the last column of the tables the counterpart in each action is marked.

      • 5.4.1. BRP

        • 5.4.1.1. Reporting of Production Plans

          Plan per RO is the hourly plan for the specific ROs. BRPs shall submit the plans per RO to the relevant TSO, 45 min before the delivery hour. The TSO will then send the binding production plans per RO to eSett.

        • 5.4.1.2. Reporting of Balancing Energy

          The BRP shall place bids in the Balancing Markets operated by the TSO. The TSO will report the services provided by the BRP to eSett. eSett will aggregate these values into time series for imbalance adjustments that are utilised in the imbalance settlement.

        • 5.4.1.3. Bilateral Trade Reporting

          All bilateral trades shall be reported before gate closure (delivery hour). A bilateral trade shall primarily be reported on a RE level, but the reporting may be done on BRP level as well. In the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model eSett will aggregate data on BRP level.

          BRPs are responsible for reporting bilateral trades performed by REs that the BRP is responsible for. Bilateral trade values are verified by eSett’s imbalance settlement IT system. However, bilateral trades in Swedish MBAs will be reported to Svk and verified in Svk IT system. Therefore, the reporting due to the matching process will not be applied as described below. Reporting between Svk and BRP will be according to current practice.

          The reported values by the two counterparts must match; if the values do not match the imbalance settlement system corrects the values according to pre-defined correction rules and sends notification to both parties involved. The BRPs can then take action as described in the procedure below. It is possible that only one BRP submits the bilateral trade, the correction rules (matching) will then be applied.

          The correction rules are the following (in case of values not matching):

          • If both BRPs report a sale, zero will be used
          • If both BRPs report a purchase, zero will be used
          • If one BRP reports sale and the other reports purchase, the lowest absolute value per hour will be used (zero is considered as a number)
          • If only one of the BRPs have reported values, those values will be used

           

          1st gate closure for bilateral trade is 45 minutes before the delivery hour in NO and SE while in FI it is 20 minutes. Matching will be performed every time a bilateral trade is received from the BRPs. When the matching is done, an Intermediate Confirmation Report (iCNF) will be sent to both BRPs by file.

          The iCNF will include the matched value and the difference between the reported values (delta). The delta is calculated as:

          ∆ = VALUE BRP SALE – VALUE BRP PURCHASE

          2nd gate closure for bilateral trade is 12:00 next working day after the delivery day. The matching process will, between the 1st and 2nd gate closure, be as follows:

          • Hours where there is a match:
            • The involved BRPs shall immediately after the 1st gate closure receive a final confirmation report (fCNF) for those hours where there is a match
          • Hours where match is achieved by acceptance of the counterparts values:
            • The BRPs have the possibility to manually accept to use the counterparts’ values for hours where there is no match on the Online Service. The BRP may do this hour by hour or for a longer time period in the same operation
            • Both BRPs have equal rights to accept to use the counterparts’ values. This is based on the “first come first serve” principle. The values can only be corrected once between 1st and 2nd gate closure
            • For hours where one of the BRPs has chosen to accept the counterpart’s values, a fCNF will be sent short time after acceptance
          • After the 2nd gate closure (12:00 next working day after the delivery day):
            • fCNF will be sent for the bilateral trades of the previous day.

        • 5.4.1.4. Reporting Schedule BRP

          Slide16

          Table 9. BRP’s responsibilities.

          Before delivery hour:

          1. Report bilateral trades (except Nord Pool trades to TSO)
          • 20 minutes before delivery hour in Finland
          • 45 minutes before delivery hour in Sweden and Norway

          2. Report plans per Regulation Object to TSO at the latest 45 minutes before delivery hour

          3. Report regulation bids for up and down regulation to TSO at the latest 45 minutes before delivery hour

          After gate closure:

          4. Update plans during the delivery hour for operational purposes (Sweden)

          5. The party may accept the counterparty’s values the next working day after delivery day before 12:00 CET

      • 5.4.2. DSO

        • 5.4.2.1. MGA Exchange Reporting

          The DSOs are responsible for reporting MGA exchanges. Both DSOs are expected to report the MGA exchange, but the correction rules take into consideration that only one DSO might report. The imbalance settlement IT system verifies the reported MGA exchanges and checks if the values match between the two counterparts.

          If the values do not match, the values are changed according to pre-defined correction rules. After this the imbalance settlement IT system sends a notification to the counterparts. The notification is sent to the DSOs and will also be visible on the Online Service. The notification contains information about the new corrected value.
          Correction rules for MGA exchanges:

          • If both DSOs report export, zero will be used
          • If both DSOs report import, zero will be used
          • If one DSO reports export and the other reports import, the lowest absolute value per hour will be used (zero is considered as a number)
          • If only one of the DSOs have reported values, these values will be used

           

          The DSO verifies the corrected MGA exchanges values. If the time period is still open, the DSO can initiate the sending of new values either via the Online Service or in an electronically sent message. If the time period is closed, the DSO can only view what the corrected value was set to.

          The matching process will be, during the period between the 2nd day after the delivery day and 13 days after delivery day, as follows:

          • 2nd day after the delivery day
            • Matching will be performed every time MGA-MGA exchanges is receivedAn iCNF (intermediate confirmation report) will be sent to both DSOs. The iCNF will include the delta and the matched value
          • 13 days after delivery day
            • fCNF (final confirmation report) will be sent for all hours of the relevant period

        • 5.4.2.2. Example of MGA Exchange Reporting

          Figure 15 below illustrates how the DSO will aggregate the MGA exchange when reporting. The sum of the exchange measurements (1-5) will be reported to eSett.

          Slide17

          Figure 15. Example of MGA exchange reporting.

        • 5.4.2.3. Reporting of Production

          DSO will be responsible for reporting hourly metered data per production unit to eSett, which will then aggregate metered data on BRP level per MGA and per type.

          The production types can for example be: hydro, wind, nuclear, solar and thermal.

          National rules in Sweden state that production with installed capacity < 1 MW should be merged to one PU per RE and MGA. These PUs (consisting of aggregated production) are reported separately in the same way as production with installed capacity > 1 MW. In Finland, same rule will apply for reporting of minor production (<1 MW). That is, when the minor production exceeds retailers aggregated consumption. This production will then also be reported per production unit with the production unit type minor.

        • 5.4.2.4. Reporting of Consumption

          DSO will be responsible for reporting hourly metered data to eSett. The DSO will report aggregated metered values per RE and MGA.

          The aggregated consumption will be reported on the following types per country:

          Sweden:

          • Metered consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on hourly basis)
          • Preliminary profiled consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on a monthly basis)
          • Metered interruptible consumption
            • Interruptible consumption means objects that can be controlled and switched off completely, which for example electric boilers, heat pumps or the equivalent (the requirement is that it is hourly metered)
            • Disconnecting them can adjust consumption to the current market situation (influenced by the price of electricity) or reduce power to the electrical system
          • Metered industry consumption over 50 MW
            • Industry consumption over 50 MW is reported as an own RO in Sweden, implying that consumption plans are reported per RO
          • Profiled and metered losses
            • Losses per MGA are calculated based on the MGA exchange, metered production and metered consumption as follows:
              • Profiled losses = – (MGA exchange + metered production + metered consumption + preliminary profiled consumption)
              • Metered losses: – (MGA exchange + metered production + metered consumption)

           

          Norway:

            • Metered consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on hourly basis)
            • Preliminary profiled consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on a monthly basis)
            • Profiled and metered pumped
              • The profiled and metered pumped consumption are used for pumps that are used to pump water from one waterway to another so that it can be utilized in the production units.
              • eSett is for Norway responsible for providing the settlement data used for issuing Guarantees of Origin and electricity certificates. The profiled and metered pumped consumption will be deducted from the production before these guarantees are issued.
            • Metered pumped storage
              • Norway has a significant installed capacity of combined pump and generation units; production units that can reverse the turbine so that it acts like a pump. These units represent added flexibility for upward and downward regulations compared to normal production units. In order to ensure an efficient handling of this flexibility the BRP will place a single bid for reserves to the TSO including both production and consumption. Up regulation can be delivered as reduction of pumping, increased production or a combination of the two.
              • The consumption for pumping in these units are in the imbalance settlement included in the production imbalance. That is why a separate time series is required for this type of production.
            • Losses
              • Losses per MGA are calculated according to existing national requirements (more information can be found in the secondary legislation, : Forskrift om måling, avregning og samordnet opptreden ved kraftomsetning og fakturering av nettjenester – ”MAF”)

           

          Finland:

            • Metered consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on hourly basis)
            • Preliminary profiled consumption (i.e. consumption that is metered on a monthly basis)
            • Losses
              • Losses per MGA are calculated based on the MGA exchange, metered production and metered consumption as follows:
                • Losses = – (MGA exchange + metered production + metered consumption + preliminary profiled consumption)

        • 5.4.2.5. Reporting Schedule DSO

          Table 10. DSO’s responsibilities.

          Slide18

          2-13 days after the delivery day:
          1. Report metered data before 10:00 (CET) the second day after delivery day:
          • Hourly metered data on production reported to eSett and RE per production unit
          • Hourly metered data per consumption metering point reported to RE

          2. Report aggregated metered data before 10:00 (CET) on the second day after delivery day. Metered data should be available at eSett’s database for BRP and RE as an aggregated volume per RE. Missing daily collected metered data in a single metering point must be estimated, according to national practice / regulations by the DSO before aggregation.
          • Per MGA aggregated metered data from exchange metering points to eSett
          • Per MGA aggregated metered consumption data per RE to eSett
          • Per MGA aggregated preliminary profiled consumption per RE to eSett

          3. Report updated metered data before 12:00 (CET) the 13th day after delivery day.

      • 5.4.3. eSett

        eSett performs preliminary and a final settlement and reports/publish the results after each settlement. The result after the preliminary settlement will be reported the 2nd day after delivery day. eSett performs regularly preliminary settlement calculations and publish the results on the Online service. The result of the final settlement will be reported the 1st working day after DSOs final reporting day (D+13).

        The details regarding eSett’s reporting and publishing of the settlement result is not finalized but will probably include information listed in sections below.

        • 5.4.3.1. eSett Reporting or Publishing to BRP

            • Aggregated production plan per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated normal production per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated minor production per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated consumption per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated consumption per type per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated consumption per RE and MGA
            • Aggregated pump storage consumption per BRP and MBA
            • Calculated MGA imbalance per BRP and MGA
            • Aggregated MGA trade import and export per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated MGA imbalances (surplus and deficit) per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated Day-ahead trades (purchase and sales) per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated Intraday trades (purchase and sales) per BRP and MBA
            • Aggregated bilateral trades (purchase and sales) per BRP and MBA
            • Consumption imbalance purchase and sales (volumes and amounts) per BRP and MBA
            • Production imbalance purchase and sales (volumes and amounts) per BRP and MBA
            • Production and consumption Imbalance Adjustments up and down per BRP and MBA
            • Relative production imbalance per BRP and MBA
            • Relative consumption imbalance per BRP and MBA
            • 2-price costs per BRP and MBA plus per BRP and country

        • 5.4.3.2. eSett Reporting or Publishing to DSO

          • Aggregated metered production per MGA
          • Aggregated metered consumption per MGA
          • MGA imbalances
          • MGA exchanges

        • 5.4.3.3. eSett Publishing of Information Regarding RE

          • Aggregated metered production per RE and MBA
          • Aggregated metered consumption per RE and MBA
          • Aggregated bilateral trades per RE and MBA
          • MGA exchange trade per RE and MGA

        • 5.4.3.4. Reporting Schedule eSett

          Slide19

          Table 11. eSett’s responsibilities.

          2-13 days after delivery:

          1. Report quality assurance (MGA imbalance) on area balance per MGA to DSO

          2. Provide aggregated RE hourly metered data on consumption and production to BRP,RE and DSO

          3. Provide final aggregated RE hourly metered data on consumption and production to BRP and RE

          4. Calculate preliminary imbalance settlement

          After final imbalance settlement:

          5. Calculate the results of the imbalance settlement for settlement day (calculated every day until 13th day after the delivery day)

          6. Send invoice for one delivery week electronically to the BRP on the next working day after the final reporting day

      • 5.4.4. NEMO

        • 5.4.4.1. Reporting of PX Market Trades and PX Market Flows

          NEMO will report the Day-ahead and Intraday trades to its customers and eSett. Day-ahead trades will be reported when NEMO has completed the price calculation and Intraday trades will be reported continuously. The Day-ahead and Intraday trades will be reported per BRP/RE and per MBA.

          NEMO will report Day-ahead and Intraday flows between respective MBAs to eSett and TSOs.

          Final values of PX market trades and PX market flows to be reported to eSett latest D+13 12:00 CET after the delivery day and to TSOs according to the agreements between NEMO and TSOs.

        • 5.4.4.2. Reporting of Prices

          The PX market price is calculated on the day-ahead market, based on the sale and purchase orders from market participants. The PX market price is used as a reference price for trading and clearing of most financial contracts in the Nordic countries.

          The Day-ahead market is divided into several market balancing areas and the available transmission capacity may vary and congest the flow of electrical energy between the areas. Hence, different area prices are established.

          Nord Pool calculates and publishes the PX market and area prices, which are then reported to eSett

        • 5.4.4.3. Reporting Schedule NEMO

          Slide20

          Table 12. NEMO´s responsibilities.

          Before gate closure and final delivery day:
          1. Report all Day-ahead trades, flows and Day-ahead prices made for the next day to eSett and market participants active in PX market. Report all Intraday trades and flows before the delivery hour to eSett and market participants active in PX market
          2. Report delivery day final Day-ahead trades, flows and Day-ahead prices to eSett and market
          participants active in PX market latest D+13 12:00 CET. Report delivery day final Intraday trades
          and flows to eSett and market participants active in PX market latest D+13 12:00 CET.

      • 5.4.5. TSO

        • 5.4.5.1. Reporting of Reserves

          The TSO reports the activated reserves per RO and balancing sub service, volumes and amounts. Reporting is done the day after delivery and there are national differences regarding balancing service sub types which will be applied. eSett aggregates the reported activated reserves to imbalance adjustments.

        • 5.4.5.2. Reporting of Regulation Prices

          The regulation prices are calculated in the NOIS system and reported by TSO to eSett continuously as they become official.

        • 5.4.5.3. Reporting of Production Plans

          The TSO reports the binding production plans to eSett based on the BRPs reporting. The binding production plans are per BRP and RO.

          Slide21

          Table 14. TSO’s responsibilities

          Before gate closure:

          Check consistency of the data reported by BRP and request correction if needed

          After gate closure:

          1. All activated reserves and any other agreed BRP-TSO trades during delivery hour are reported to BRP and eSett
          2. Report binding production plans to eSett

    • 5.5. Validation of Reported Data

      The data is reported electronically via market messages from the market participant’s IT system to the imbalance settlement system of eSett or entered via the Online Service. In abnormal situations the data can be reported by e-mail or phone directly to eSett personnel. Before aggregation, the syntax and content of the incoming data is validated by eSett’s imbalance settlement system in order to ensure that the data can be used in the settlement calculations. The reporting parties are informed about the validation result (e.g. via acknowledgement messages). After the validation the data is stored in eSett’s imbalance settlement system and the imbalance settlement calculations are performed.

      Both the data sent by market participants and the final calculated settlement data is published on the Online Service, so that it can be verified and so that possible errors can be reported to eSett. In addition, the market participants are given the possibility to utilise the Information Service, which provides the market participants the settlement data (as time series data) that they are entitled to see. The Information Service (presented in chapter 10.2 Information Services) is established as a machine-to-machine interface and made available to market participants authorised by eSett.

      Market participants themselves are responsible for the accuracy and quality of the reported data. eSett sends and publishes the data received from the parties and is not able to verify the correctness of the received data.

    • 5.6. Reporting in Disturbance Situations

      A disturbance in the market participants solution does not discharge the market participant from the liability to report the settlement data to eSett. If the market participants can´t report the settlement data electronically, due to disturbance in the market participants solutions, the settlement data shall be reported via the Online Service.

      If the reporting can´t be performed due to disturbance in eSett´s IT solution, the messages will be received in the same order as they have been sent to eSett, when the disturbance is over.

  • 6. Imbalance Settlement

    This chapter contains an overview of the production and consumption imbalance settlement including a calculation example. Also applied, national, reconciliation settlement models are presented.

    In the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model the settlement of BRPs’ imbalances is based on the harmonised Nordic model which was implemented in all Nordic countries 2009, based on two imbalances calculated and settled; production imbalance and consumption imbalance.

    Production imbalance volume is calculated as the deviation between metered production, planned production and imbalance adjustment. Consumption imbalance is calculated as the deviation between consumption, planned production, trades, MGA imbalance and imbalance adjustment.

    A different price model is applied to the production and consumption imbalances. The production imbalance volume is priced with the less favourable price of the MBA’s PX Market price and imbalance price. This is called the “two price model”. The consumption imbalance volume is always priced with the market balance area’s imbalance price. This is called the “one price model”. The applied pricing model is described in detail in chapter 7 Pricing and Fees.

    eSett will conduct a preliminary imbalance settlement every day starting from the second day after the delivery day until the final settlement 13 days after delivery.

    Production and consumption imbalance volumes are calculated as follows:

    Slide22

    The BRPs and the DSOs are responsible for resolving possible errors with the counterpart within the reporting window. The DSO has at most 13 days to correct and resubmit erroneous data before eSett invoices the imbalance power. The reporting responsibilities and schedule are presented in chapter 5 Settlement Data Reporting. No corrections of the imbalance settlement will be made by eSett after the invoice has been created and submitted.

    • 6.1. Production Imbalance Settlement

      The production imbalance volumes are calculated based on received settlement data. The calculation is performed per MBA at BRP level and includes data from the parties in the BRP’s balance hierarchy, using relations in the structure information (e.g. BRP’s responsibility over REs).

      The production imbalance is composed of a BRP’s production plan, production and production imbalance adjustment. A balance deviation in the production imbalance arises when there is a difference between the production and the production plan. If the BRP produces less electricity than it planned to produce, in other words the production volume is smaller than the production plan, there is a deficit in the production imbalance, and the BRP purchases imbalance power from eSett in order to cover the deficit.

      Correspondingly, if the BRP produces more electricity than it planned to produce, in other words the production volume is greater than the production plan, there is a surplus in the production imbalance, and the balance responsible party sells imbalance power to eSett in order to take care of the surplus.

      A two-price system is applied to the balance deviation in the production imbalance, i.e. separate prices are calculated for the purchase and sales price of imbalance power. The applied pricing model is described in detail in chapter 7 Pricing and Fees.

      Production imbalance is calculated from the input data in the imbalance settlement system delivered by market participants. This data contains metered production per production unit, production plans per regulation object and production imbalance adjustment (sum of Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR), Frequency Restoration Reserves (FRR) and Replacement Reserves (RR)). Based on the delivered data the metered production per BRP in MBA, planned production per BRP in MBA, and production imbalance adjustment up and down per BRP in MBA are calculated by eSett. Altogether the result is production imbalance per BRP in MBA. Calculation of the production imbalance is shown in Figure 16.

      Slide23

      Figure 16. Calculation of production imbalance settlement

      • 6.1.1. National Differences in Settlement for Production Imbalance

        Currently there are different national rules for settling some of the production without applying two price regime. In Norway and Finland, production under 3 MW (Norway) and 1 MW (Finland) can be settled in the consumption imbalance. There is no limit in Sweden; all production is settled in the production imbalance.

        In Norway the consumption from pump storage units are included in the calculation of production imbalance. This is to efficiently incorporate the flexibility of these units in the regulation power market. The result for the BRP is that they have the disadvantage of a two price settlement for this consumption.

    • 6.2. Consumption Imbalance Settlement

      The consumption imbalance settlement volumes are calculated based on received settlement data. The calculation is performed per BRP and includes data from the market participants in the BRP’s balance hierarchy, using relations in the structure information (e.g. between market participants; BRP’s responsibility over REs).

      A BRP’s consumption imbalance is composed of its production plan, trades, MGA imbalance, consumption and consumption imbalance adjustment up and down. For example, a balance deviation in the consumption imbalance arises when there is a difference between the consumption and electricity purchases (if the BRP consumes more electricity than it purchased), there is a deficit in the consumption imbalance, and the BRP is required to purchase the imbalance power from eSett in order to cover the deficit.

      On the contrary, if the BRP consumes less electricity than it purchased, there is a surplus in the consumption imbalance, and the balance responsible party sells imbalance power to eSett in order to take care of the surplus. A one-price regime is applied to imbalance power in the consumption imbalance, i.e. the purchase and sales prices of imbalance power are identical. Pricing is explained in chapter 7 Pricing and Fees.

      Figure 17 describes the data that is used in the consumption imbalance calculation and the example calculation in the following chapter.

      Slide24

      Figure 17. Consumption imbalance settlement calculation.

      • 6.2.1. MGA Imbalance

        eSett calculates the MGA imbalance based on reported values from the DSO. MGA Imbalance will be an input to the consumption imbalance calculation and calculated as follows:
        MGA Imbalance = Consumption per RE + Metered production per PU + MGA exchange import per adjacent MGA + MGA exchange export per adjacent MGA

    • 6.3. Example: Calculation of Imbalance Volumes

      • 6.3.1. Production Imbalance Calculation Example

        In this chapter an example of the BRP’s production imbalance calculation is presented. The example is made from the BRP´s perspective and with below mentioned values, (see Table 15 and Table 16).

        s68a

        Table 15. Production imbalance example values.

        s68b

        Table 16. Production imbalance calculation.

        As a result of the BRP`s production imbalance calculation (65 – 50 + (-10)) there is a 5 MWh surplus in the BRP´s production imbalance. The BRP sells 5 MWh imbalance power to eSett.

      • 6.3.2. Consumption Imbalance Calculation Example

        In this chapter an example of the BRP’s consumption imbalance calculation is presented. The example is made from the BRP´s perspective (see Table 17 and Table 18).

        s68c

        Table 17. Consumption imbalance example values

        s69

        Table 18. Consumption balance imbalance calculation.

        As a result of the BRP´s consumption imbalance calculation (50 + (-20) + (- 45)) there is a -15 MWh deficit in the BRP´s consumption imbalance. The BRP buys 15 MWh from eSett

    • 6.4. Imbalance Settlement with Missing Data

      The calculation of imbalances is performed in eSett’s imbalance settlement system whether or not all the settlement data has been received. For MECs from which data hasn’t been received the value 0 is used in the calculation but empty settlement data is not changed from void to 0 in the database.

      If the values have not been received by gate closure the final calculations are performed with the value 0. If the calculation was done without having all settlement data available, the market participant in question is notified about this in the Online Service. The notification includes information on what settlement data was missing. This procedure applies for both consumption and production imbalance settlement.

    • 6.5. Management of Imbalance Errors after Gate Closure

      There will be no corrections of the imbalance settlement made by eSett after the invoice of a settlement period has been created and submitted. An exception is if eSett has committed errors or due to extraordinary circumstances (force majeure or similar). Handling of imbalance errors after invoicing is done bilaterally between the contracting parties.

      Subsequent bilateral correction of imbalance settlement is outside of eSett’s scope. Handling of bilateral corrections of imbalance settlement will be performed according to national rules.

    • 6.6. Imbalance Settlement in Disturbance Situations

      If the imbalance settlement can´t be performed due to eSett according to the schedules, the imbalance settlement will be performed and finalised as soon as the disturbance situation has been resolved.

    • 6.7. Reconciliation

      Reconciliation is done according to current national practices. Therefore the step-wise-approach is used for reconciliation in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model. This means that reconciliation is done differently in each of the countries and current national procedures are followed.

      In the imbalance settlement, estimates for the profiled consumption on hourly basis are used when meter readings are not available in due time (13 days after delivery day). When the metering data becomes available a new and improved estimate on hourly basis is done and called the final profiled consumption (FPC). In the reconciliation settlement the difference between FPC and PPC is settled using hourly PX Market prices for the MBA. In this way, the error in the imbalance settlement due to incorrect estimates of the profiled consumption is corrected.

      Reconciliation frequency and schedule depend on the national schedule explained in the following sub chapters that present the national step-wise approaches. Reconciliation is done if one of the following changes in the settlement structure is done: change of supplier, customer relocation, metering point switches between the profiled and non-profiled consumption or in case of change of meters.

      • 6.7.1. Step-Wise Approach in Sweden

        In Sweden, Svenska kraftnät (Svk) is responsible for calculating and reporting reconciled energy on the Swedish market. Reconciliation is settled on BRP level in Sweden. Svk will be responsible for the settlement of the reconciled energy but eSett will manage the invoicing. Content of the description can be found in chapter 8.1 Invoice Contents. Additionally, there is a variation regarding the reporting of profiled consumption compared to the Imbalance Settlement Model in Sweden. The reporting structure in Sweden will be as described below. Metered data for profiled consumption is collected monthly; consumption is aggregated final profiled consumption two months after delivery month for DSO per MGA. Svk calculates reconciled energy per BRP in monthly resolution three months after delivery month

         

        Profiling

        Load Profile Shares are calculated by the DSO before the delivery month. Svk calculates BRPs PPC per MGA. Reporting structure as described below:

        • DSO reports Load profile shares per MGA and BRP to Svk and BRP
        • DSO reports Load profile per MGA to Svk
        • Svk reports profiled consumption per BRP and MGA to eSett
        • eSett reports aggregated profiled consumption per BRP and MBA to BRP

         

        Reconciliation

        The DSO reports Final Load Profile Shares to Svk . Svk calculates BRPs reconciled energy and reports it to BRPs. Reporting structure as described below:

        • DSO reports final Load Profile Shares per MGA and BRP to Svk
        • Svk reports QA data per MGA on reconciled energy to BRP
        • Svk publish reconciled energy per MGA and BRP
        • Svk report reconciled energy and payment per MBA to BRP

      • 6.7.2. Step-Wise Approach in Finland

        In Finland reconciliation is managed yearly after final meter reading per metering point. Reconciliation is done between DSO and RE. Profiled consumption has annual meter reading and the DSO is responsible for the meter reading. REs are the financial counterparts for DSOs in the process. Final imbalance profiling is done in an equal way in all meters independent on the meter type. Reconciliation settlement is done on hourly basis and the price is the PX market price of the metering grid area during the delivery hour. Profiled consumption is done annually.

      • 6.7.3. Step-Wise Approach in Norway

        The introduction of eSett will not affect the Norwegian reconciliation process. The process will remain the same until the Elhub (Norwegian HUB project) is set into operation.

  • 7. Pricing and Fees

    This chapter describes the pricing of imbalances according to the two-price model for production imbalances and the one-price model for consumption imbalances. The fees that are charged in the imbalance settlement are also presented in this chapter.

    The BRP’s imbalance volumes are priced hour by hour according to the prices that are generated in the day-ahead elspot market and in the regulation power market. Depending on the nature and direction of the imbalance and the overall regulation direction of the delivery hour, the price applied to an hour of imbalance can be either the up regulation price or the down regulation price from the regulation power market or the Elspot price from Nord Pool. The pricing mechanism is different for production imbalances and consumption imbalances as explained in subchapters 7.1 and 7.2. In addition to the pricing of the imbalance volumes, eSett also calculates the fees that are charged from the BRPs in the imbalance settlement. The applicable fee categories are presented in subchapter 7.3.

    s72

    Table 19. Pricing information.

    • 7.1. Pricing of Production Imbalance

      Production imbalance is priced according to a two-price model, which means that positive and negative production imbalances have different prices. The price with which eSett sells the negative production imbalances (deficits of the BRP) to the BRP is always equal to or higher than the price with which eSett buys the positive production imbalances (surpluses of the BRP) from the BRP. The types of prices applied to the positive and negative imbalances in a delivery hour depend on the main regulation direction of the hour as follows:

      • In up-regulation hours, the price of negative production imbalances (BRP purchase) is the up-regulation price and the price of positive production imbalances (BRP sale) is the PX market price. The up-regulation price is always higher than the PX market price.
      • In down-regulation hours, the price of negative production imbalances is the PX market price and the price of positive production imbalances is the down-regulation price, which is always lower than the PX market price.
      • In hours with no regulation direction, negative and positive imbalances are both priced with the PX market price.

      If both up-regulation and down-regulation was carried out during the delivery hour, the regulation direction of the hour is the direction in which more energy was regulated. A delivery hour will have no direction if no regulation was carried out or in the rather unlikely event that there was an equal amount of regulation in both directions.

       

       

    • 7.2. Pricing of Consumption Imbalance

      Consumption imbalance is priced according to a one-price model, which means that positive and negative consumption imbalances have the same price. The price is the regulation price in the main direction of regulation in the price area:

      • In up-regulation hours, the price of negative and positive consumption balances is the up-regulation price
      • In down-regulation hours, the price of negative and positive consumption balances is the down-regulation price
      • In hours with no direction, the price of negative and positive consumption balances is the PX Market price.

       

      The pricing model for production and consumption imbalances is summarized in Table 20.

      s74a

      Table 20. Pricing model for imbalances

    • 7.3. Fees in the Imbalance Settlement

      Income generated in the imbalance settlement will cover the national cost base, which encompasses for example costs for operating eSett as well as parts of the costs for reserves. A part of this cost base will be covered by the two price income and the remaining part will be covered by fees.

      The fees in the imbalance settlement model are calculated and invoiced separately for each market balance area. The fee categories have been harmonized across the countries but the amounts of fees to be charged will be country specific as the cost bases are national. There is a fee on production, a fee on consumption, a fee on all imbalances within the consumption balance, and a weekly fee. In addition to the harmonised fee structure there is one additional fee related to the financing of the Swedish peak load reserves, which is charged only from the BRPs active in the Swedish MBAs.

      The fee levels are set by each TSO in proportion to the national cost base. The fees can be changed with one month’s notice. The goal is to keep the fees fixed for at least one calendar year at the time, if possible. TSOs are responsible for calculating and setting the fees and notifying eSett to reduce or increase the fee levels. All fees are published in the Online Service.

      s74b

      Table 21. Fee structure in the imbalance settlement model.

      • 7.3.1. Consumption Fee

        The Consumption Fee is levied on the BRP’s total Consumption. The Consumption Fee is defined as EUR per MWh of Consumption and calculated for each delivery hour and MBA.

      • 7.3.2. Production Fee

        The Production Fee is levied on the BRP’s total Production. The Production Fee is defined as EUR per MWh of Production and calculated for each Delivery Hour and MBA.

      • 7.3.3. Consumption Imbalance Fee

        The Consumption Imbalance Fee is levied on sum of the absolute amounts of the BRP’s positive and negative Consumption Imbalances. The Consumption Imbalance Fee is defined as EUR per MWh of Consumption Imbalance and calculated for each Delivery Hour and MBA.

      • 7.3.4. Weekly Fee

        The Weekly Fee is levied for each week and country where the BRPs have been active in the week that the invoice covers. The Weekly Fee is defined as EUR per week and country. The maximum fee for a BRP active in all market balance areas in the Nordics will be three times the weekly fee. (I.e. if the weekly fee is 50 EUR per week and country, the fee for a BRP operating in Finland, Norway and Sweden is 150 EUR).

      • 7.3.5. Peak Load Reserve Fee (Sweden)

        In addition to the harmonised fee structure there is an additional national fee related to the financing of the Swedish peak load reserves. This fee is levied on BRPs active in the Swedish balancing areas and will be invoiced by eSett on behalf of Svenska kraftnät. The peak load reserve fee is based on the BRP’s metered consumption, excluding network losses for networks requiring licenses.

        The fee is charged between 16th of November and 15th of March on working days between 06.00-22.00 CET. If the supplementary fee generates a surplus compared with Svenska kraftnät’s costs for the peak load reserve during the winter period, a settlement will be made subsequently, no later than 30th of June. Payment of any surplus will be made in proportion to how large a share of the supplementary fee the BRP has contributed.

        If Svenska kraftnät produces a trading profit as a result of the activation of the peak load reserve for balance-related reasons, this profit will be settled retroactively, no later than 30th of June. The settlement of the surplus will be done in proportion to how large a share of the supplementary fee for the peak load reserve the BRP has paid, up to the said amount.

    • 7.4. Example: Calculation of Imbalance Amounts

      The next subchapters contain examples of production and consumption imbalance calculations with prices. The examples are based on the ones used to describe the calculation of imbalance volumes in chapter 6.

      • 7.4.1. Production Imbalance Calculation Example

        This example presents BRP’s production imbalance calculation. In the calculation the hour in question is assumed to be an up regulation hour. The example is made from the BRP´s perspective. Prices and fees used in the example are defined in Table 22 below.

        s76a

        Table 22. Fees and prices used in the imbalance calculation.

        As a result of the BRP`s production imbalance calculation there is a 5 MWh production surplus in the BRP´s production imbalance. The BRP sells 5 MWh imbalance power to eSett.

        Invoicing is done from the BRP´s point of view. The production balance has a 5 MWh surplus. The production balance evens up by the BRP selling imbalance power to eSett. In the invoicing a negative expense means compensation to the BRP.
        The invoicing for the production imbalance is the following:

        s76b

        Table 23. Invoicing information production balance.

      • 7.4.2. Consumption Imbalance Calculation Example

        This example presents BRP’s consumption imbalance calculation. In the calculation the hour in question is assumed to be an up regulation hour. The example is made from the BRP´s perspective. Prices and fees used in the calculation are defined in the Table 23 below.

        Table 24. Fees and prices used in the imbalance calculation.

        As a result of the BRP´s consumption imbalance calculation there is a consumption deficit of -15 MWh. The BRP buys 15 MWh from eSett.

        The invoicing is done from the BRP´s point of view. The consumption balance has a 15 MWh deficit. The consumption balance evens up by the BRP buying imbalance power from eSett.

        The invoicing for consumption imbalance is the following:

        Table 25. Invoicing information consumption balance.

  • 8. Invoicing

    This chapter describes the model and procedures for invoicing and payment of the imbalance settlement results. The handling of value-added taxes and different currencies is also explained.

    eSett manages the invoicing and money transfers in the imbalance settlement. The amounts to be settled include the BRPs’ imbalances, the fees charged from the BRPs as well as payments for activated reserves between the TSO and the BRP. The TSOs are legally responsible for the imbalance settlement, but eSett carries out the settlement and invoicing on their behalf. The imbalance settlement is to a great extent a matter of passing money between BRPs.

    However, all transfers pass through eSett who guarantees the financial settlement. The net proceeds from the settlement in each country will be transferred to the respective TSO. EUR is the common currency in which all settlement is performed. It is, however, possible for BRPs in Norway and Sweden to choose to be invoiced in their local currency.

    • 8.1. Invoice Contents

      The invoices from eSett to BRPs contain the volumes (MWh), prices³ and payable amounts (EUR or local currency) of the imbalances and possible reserves bought and sold during the settlement period. The invoices also contain the fees accrued in the settlement period. The content of the invoice is illustrated in Figure 18.

      s79

      Figure 18 Illustrative contents of invoice from eSett to BRPs

      Invoice rows representing purchases by the BRP from the TSO are labelled as “sales by eSett”. The amounts of these rows are positive, i.e. the BRP shall pay these amounts to eSett. Invoice rows representing sales by the BRP to the TSO are labelled as “purchases by eSett”. The amounts of these rows are negative, i.e. they reduce the amount that the BRP needs to pay to eSett. The invoice total can be either positive or negative depending on the relative amounts of purchases, sales and fees on the invoice. Invoices with a positive total are labeled “Debit Notice” and settled with a money transfer from the BRP to eSett. Invoices with a negative total are labeled “Credit Notice” and settled with a money transfer from eSett to the BRP. When eSett issues Credit Notices to BRPs, this is referred to as “self billing”.

      In addition to the ordinary imbalance settlement invoices, eSett also invoices the BRPs operating in Sweden for the payable amounts arising from the reconciliation of their profiled deliveries. Svenska Kraftnät is responsible for the settlement of the reconciled energy but eSett administrates the invoicing process. Invoicing of the reconciled energy is carried out on a monthly basis. The invoice contains the volumes (MWh) and payable amounts of the reconciled energy and profile compensation as well as accrued interest on the payable amounts. The content of this invoice is illustrated in Figure 19.

      s80

      Figure 19 Illustrative contents of invoice for reconciled energy of BRPs in Sweden

       

      ³The prices of imbalances and regulation vary from hour to hour. The prices shown on the invoice are the average prices of each invoice row, which are required due to regulatory requirements on invoices. The hourly prices can be seen in the Online Service.

    • 8.2. Invoice Distribution

      The BRP receives one invoice for each country where it is active. Companies that operate multiple BRP roles in a country also get separate invoices for each BRP role.

      The invoice is distributed as an e-invoice through the network of e-invoice operators active in the Nordic region. eSett’s e-invoice operator is Basware. To receive e-invoices, the BRP needs to establish an agreement with an e-invoicing operator and inform eSett of the e-invoicing operator and e-invoicing address that it will use. The e-invoice consists of two components:

      • An invoice message in XML, which allows for automatic import of the invoice into the BRP’s accounting system
      • A PDF file with a traditional image of the invoice, which facilitates manual review of the invoice

       

      eSett encodes the invoice message in the Finnish Finvoice 1.3 format. However, the BRP can agree with its invoice operator to receive the invoice in any supported e-invoice format. Any required translation of the message is carried out while the message is transferred from eSett’s e-invoice operator to the BRP’s e-invoice operator.

      BRPs that do not wish to receive e-invoices will instead receive their invoices by email in PDF format.

    • 8.3. Debiting and Crediting of Invoice Amounts

      eSett will use a direct debiting scheme for collecting the incoming payments from the BRPs. This means that when a BRP receives a Debit Notice from eSett, the BRP should not pay the invoice.

      Instead eSett will issue an instruction through its main bank to the BRP’s bank to debit the payable amount from the BRP’s account and transfer it to eSett. The use of direct debiting helps to ensure timely settlement according to a short settlement cycle. The payments between BRPs and eSett are all executed as same-day-value payments, which means that the payments will be available to the recipient’s bank on the same day as they are paid by the payer. Typically the funds will also be credited to the recipient’s account on that same day, but that depends on the terms agreed upon between the recipient and its bank.

    • 8.4. Required Banking Setup

      To participate in the imbalance settlement, the BRP needs to hold a bank account (also referred to as “settlement account”) in an approved settlement bank, i.e. a bank which has been approved by eSett to be used in the imbalance settlement. eSett defines the criteria for approval of banks as settlement banks. These criteria include requirements on credit rating as well as the ability to interchange required SWIFT messages with eSett’s bank for execution of payments and balance reporting (see chapter 9.9). The settlement bank also needs to sign a Settlement Bank Agreement with eSett. The list of approved settlement banks is available in the Online Service. If a BRP wishes to use a bank which is not on the list of approved settlement banks, the BRP shall inform eSett and supply the contact details of a contact person at the bank, with whom the necessary process can be initiated to establish the settlement bank status, given that the bank meets the criteria.

      The settlement account is used for the debiting and crediting of all payable amounts between the BRP and eSett. Any collateral that the BRP provides in the form of cash shall also be held on the settlement account. The requirements and procedures related to collaterals are further described in chapter 9.

      The settlement account must be held in Finland, Norway or Sweden. The currency of the settlement account can be EUR, NOK or SEK. The BRP must select the same currency for its settlement account as it has selected for its invoices. If a BRP operates in multiple countries, it can have one settlement account per country over which the invoices for respective country are settled. Or BRP can have one common account over which invoices are settled if the invoicing currency is the same in the all countries. The settlement account will be updated by the BRP through Online Service. Any account setup of the BRP is subject to review and approval by eSett.

      To enable the debiting of the settlement account and to make it possible to apply the funds on the settlement account as collateral, the BRP needs to sign a Pledged Cash Account Agreement, as defined by eSett, whereby the BRP pledges the funds on the account to eSett and grants eSett the necessary right of disposal over the account. The BRP also needs to sign MT101 and MT940 -agreements with its settlement bank. These agreements are necessary for eSett to direct debit the settlement account and retrieve balance statements of it. An agreement on same-day-value payments to the BRP’s settlement account is needed if the BRP wishes to receive the payment as same-day-value payment. The settlement bank will advise on what agreements are required.

    • 8.5. Invoicing Schedule

      Invoicing of the imbalance settlement is carried out on a weekly basis. Invoices are issued each Monday.
      Each invoice comprises the transactions and fees from the delivery days for which the result of the imbalance settlement has been finalized but not invoiced yet. This means that the invoice on Monday will include the settlement that was finalized during the previous week. This settlement covers the delivery days of the week that started three weeks before the invoicing date. The schedule for settlement and invoicing in relation to the delivery dates is illustrated in Figure 20.

       

      s82a

      Since eSett does not perform imbalance settlement on weekends, the settlement of Sundays’ and Mondays’ transactions is finalized on a Monday. The transactions from Sundays will be invoiced on the same Monday on which their settlement was finalized. The transactions from Mondays will be invoiced one week after the Monday on which their settlement was finalized.

      s82

      Figure 20Schedule for settlement, invoicing and payment

      The payable amounts of the debit notices will be debited by eSett from the BRP’s settlement account two days after the invoicing day, i.e. on Wednesday. The payable amounts of the credit notices will be paid by eSett to the BRP’s settlement account three days after invoicing day i.e. on Thursday.

      Updated collateral requirements are published in the Online Service on Mondays by 13 CET. BRPs need to post any required additional collateral during the same day. In addition to the collateral, the BRPs also need to have sufficient funds on their settlement accounts for the settlement of their next invoice in case it is a debit notice. These funds also need to be in place during the Monday. The requirements and procedures related to collaterals are further described in chapter 9.

      The weekly activities related to invoices, payments, collateral and currencies are summarized in Table 25.

      s83

      Table 26. Weekly activities related to invoices, payments, collateral and currencies

    • 8.6. Handling of Exceptions

      If there is one or more holidays during the invoicing cycle (Monday to Thursday), the invoicing activities on and after the holiday will be moved forward correspondingly so that there is always the same number of business days between the events: one business day between the invoicing day and the day when incoming amounts are debited and two business days between the invoicing day and the day when outgoing amounts are paid. A holiday in any of the NBS countries will be treated as a holiday for the whole system in this regard.

      If the finalization of the imbalance settlement is delayed due to some technical problem at eSett and all of previous week’s settlement has not been finalized on Monday by the time the invoicing should take place, eSett will not invoice the incomplete week but rather delay the invoicing until all settlement data has been finalized. If the issuing of invoices is postponed from Monday to another day in the week, all other days in the invoicing cycle will also be postponed with an equal amount of days so that there will be one business day between the invoicing day and the day when incoming amounts are debited and two business days between the invoicing day and the day when outgoing amounts are paid.

      If a BRP notices an error in an invoice, which is caused by a mistake made by eSett, the BRP should notify eSett thereof as soon as possible, at the latest during the same week as the invoice was issued. If it is possible to correct the invoice during the day after the invoicing (Tuesday), the corrected amount will be debited on Wednesday or paid out on Thursday. Otherwise the original amount will be debited on Wednesday or paid out on Thursday and a correction will be debited or paid out after the corrected invoice has been issued. Due to the short time span between invoicing and debiting/payment, it is essential that BRPs carefully verify the preliminary and finalized settlement amounts as soon as they are available so that any errors in the settlement amounts can be identified and corrected well ahead of the invoicing. Invoicing errors that are caused by errors of the market participants or reported after the week when the invoice was issued will not be corrected by eSett. Such errors will instead have to be settled bilaterally between the contracting parties.

      At the beginning of a new year, the invoicing period that contains the settlement from the delivery days at the turn of the year is split into two and two invoices are issued for that period: one with the settlement from the delivery days that fall on the old year’s side and another one with the settlement from the delivery days that fall on the new year’s side. The weekly fee will only be included in one of the invoices. Both invoices are issued on the same day and debited or credited according to the same schedule.

    • 8.7. Value-Added Taxes

      The imbalance power, fees and activated reserves invoiced to the BRPs by eSett are subject to value added tax (VAT) in all the Nordic countries. The tax rules and rates differ depending on the location where the buyer is VAT registered, the location where the seller is VAT registered, and the location of delivery. The VAT procedures in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement are based on the premises that eSett is established in Finland and that it acts as a commissionaire for the TSOs.

      Most BRPs are established and VAT registered in the country where they act as BRP but it is also possible for companies in other EU member states and Norway to act as BRPs in Finland and Sweden without local establishment and VAT registration. Due to Norwegian legislation, BRPs need local VAT registration in Norway in order to buy and sell electricity in Norway. The different applicable VAT rates depending on the location of the BRP’s VAT registration and the country of delivery are illustrated in Table 26 and explained in the following subchapters.

      s84

      Table 27 Applicable VAT rates depending on registration location of BRP and country of delivery

      • 8.7.1 VAT on Invoices for Imbalance Settlement in Finland and Sweden

        As eSett is VAT registered in Finland, all the power that eSett sells to and purchases from other companies VAT registered in Finland is subject to Finnish VAT, currently 24%. The physical location of the delivery does not matter (unless the location is Norway, see section 8.7.2). If a BRP with VAT registration in Finland participates in the imbalance settlement in Sweden, the invoice from eSett to this BRP for the imbalance settlement in Sweden will also be subject to Finnish VAT. Thus the invoices for the imbalance settlement in Finland and Sweden to BRPs with VAT registration in Finland will always have Finnish VAT.

        When eSett sells power delivered in Finland or Sweden to a BRP that is not VAT registered in Finland but in another EU Member State, such as Sweden, or outside EU, such as Norway, the transaction is not subject to Finnish VAT. Instead, the power is invoiced without VAT and the BRP is liable to account for VAT on behalf of eSett based on reverse charge (RC) rules. Likewise, when a BRP that is not VAT registered in Finland supplies power delivered in Finland or Sweden to eSett, the invoice is without VAT and eSett is liable to account for VAT on behalf of the BRP. This is based on Article 38 of the EU VAT Directive, which regulates the supply of electricity. Where the power was physically delivered is not relevant (unless the location is Norway, see section 8.7.2). Thus the invoices to all BRPs that are VAT registered in Sweden, Norway or other countries outside Finland will have 0% VAT for the imbalance settlement in Sweden and Finland.

      • 8.7.2 VAT on Invoices for Imbalance Settlement in Norway

        The VAT rules on supplies and purchases of energy differ in Norway as Norway is not an EU Member State. The liability for VAT follows the physical location of the delivery rather than the location of the buyer and seller. Thus all imbalance settlement for energy delivered in Norway will be subject to Norwegian VAT, currently 25%.

    • 8.8. Currency Treatment

      • 8.8.1 Choice of Invoicing Currency

        Euro is the common currency in the imbalance settlement. The imbalances, activated reserves and fees are priced in euro and all settlement amounts are calculated in euro. Euro is also the default currency for the invoicing. However, BRPs operating in Norway can alternatively choose to be invoiced in Norwegian krone (NOK) and BRPs operating in Sweden can alternatively choose to be invoiced in Swedish krona (SEK). All BRPs operating in Finland will be invoiced in euro.

        If a company operates in more than one country, it can choose the invoicing currency separately for each country. If a company operates several BRP roles within a country, it can also choose the invoicing currency separately for each BRP role, if it so wishes. The choice of invoicing currency is done for at least one calendar year at a time. If a BRP wishes to change the invoicing currency for the following year, it shall inform eSett of this no later than December 1st the current year.

      • 8.8.2 Currency Conversions

        For those BRPs that have chosen to be invoiced in SEK or NOK, the settlement amounts are converted from euro to the local currency on the day when they are invoiced. On the same day (Monday), eSett will make the necessary foreign exchange transactions to cope with the fact that the amount of incoming funds in a currency will not equal the amount of outgoing funds in that currency. Amounts will be shifted from the one or two currencies where there will be a surplus (more funds coming in than going out) to the one or two currencies where there will be a deficit (more funds going out than coming in). These transactions will be forward transactions that settle on Thursday when the outgoing payments are to be made.

        The foreign exchange rates that eSett obtains for these transactions will also be used for converting the invoice amounts from euro to SEK and NOK. This way there will be no currency gains or losses to eSett in the imbalance settlement. The foreign exchange rates are forward rates from Monday to Thursday quoted by the bank. The rates include a certain profit margin charged by the bank. No other fees will be charged for the transaction. Since the same rate is used for converting the invoice amounts from euro to local currency, the cost of the currency conversion will be fully passed on to those BRPs that have chosen to be invoiced in the local currency. eSett will not take any margin on the currency conversions. There is also no need to charge any separate currency fee as there is no actual cost to eSett of the currency conversions.

  • 9. Collateral and Risk Management

    This chapter presents the approach for managing counterparty risk in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model including a description of the utilised collateral model, the calculation of collateral demands, as well as the approach to managing risks related to the settlement banks.

    eSett is the financial counterpart in the imbalance settlement towards all BRPs. This gives rise to a significant counterparty risk for eSett. Each BRP must therefore provide collateral to eSett as security against the risk that the BRP is unable to fulfill its obligations towards eSett. The collateral helps to ensure that eSett can complete the imbalance settlement in an orderly manner at all times. Collateral can be provided in the form of a cash deposit on a pledged bank account or a bank guarantee.

    The Nordic Imbalance Settlement Model uses a dynamic collateral model. This means that the collateral requirements are recalculated every week based on the latest available settlement and price data. The requirements may further be adjusted at any time if eSett notices significant changes in the counterparty risk profiles. The advantage of the dynamic collateral model compared to a static one is that collateral levels of the dynamic model are closer to the actual counterparty risk. Since the collateral requirements are recalculated when conditions change, the collateral formula does not have to include as much safety margin over the prevailing risk level as would be needed with a static model.

    Provision of sufficient collateral is a precondition for the BRP to be entitled to access the electricity market. If a BRP fails to provide the required amount of collateral within the required time frame, this is considered a material breach of the Imbalance Settlement Agreement. Such a breach gives eSett and the TSO the right to take any necessary action to prevent losses and safeguard the power system, including the immediate termination of the Imbalance Settlement Agreement with the BRP and the exclusion of the BRP from the electricity market.

    In addition to managing the counterparty risk vis-à-vis BRPs, eSett also monitors the settlement banks where the BRPs hold their settlement accounts and collateral. The purpose of this monitoring is to ensure that all settlement banks perform their services for the imbalance settlement in accordance with their agreement with eSett and to safeguard against the risk that the failure of a settlement bank could get to disrupt the imbalance settlement.

    The BRPs are advised to carefully familiarize themselves with appendix 2 “Collaterals” of the imbalance settlement agreement. The collateral terms are stipulated in the agreement appendix, and if there is a contradiction between the appendix and the collateral chapters below in this handbook, the appendix shall prevail.

    • 9.1. Counterparty Risk

      Counterparty risk of eSett arises from the outstanding obligations of BRPs, i.e. from negative imbalances that have taken place but not been paid for yet. The counterparty risk vis-à-vis a BRP also includes the risk that the BRP is unable to pay for negative imbalances that accumulate from the current day onwards until the point when possible irregular behaviour can be identified and the accumulation of further imbalances prevented.

      In the imbalance settlement eSett faces a significant time period of uncertain exposure. The counterparty risk for eSett will also vary substantially from time to time, depending on price levels and volumes of production and consumption. Continuous surveillance of trades compared to expected commitments and monitoring of other market developments, such as prices, is therefore essential.

    • 9.2. Provision of Collateral

      The BRP needs to provide collateral to eSett as security against the counterparty risk. Collateral can be provided in the form of cash or an on-demand guarantee, or a combination of these. Any cash collateral shall be held in a bank that has been approved by eSett as a settlement bank for the imbalance settlement, and on the same bank account (also referred to as “settlement account”) that is used for the settlement of the BRP’s invoices. The BRP shall sign a Pledged Cash Account Agreement defined by eSett to pledge the account to eSett and grant eSett the necessary right of disposal over the funds on the account. Any bank guarantee shall be unconditional, irrevocable and payable on first demand, and issued an approved settlement bank.

      eSett is entitled, if needed, to use the collateral to cover any outstanding commitments that the BRP is unable to fulfill within the time frame stipulated by the invoicing process presented in chapter 8.5.

    • 9.3. Calculation of Collateral Requirement

      The objective of the collateral model is to provide the best possible estimate of the prevailing counterparty risk exposure at any point in time based on the data available at the time. Excessively high collateral requirements would constitute a threshold for entering the market. The aim is therefore to set the collateral requirement at a level that provides adequate protection against the actual counterparty risk without being higher than necessary.
      The overall counterparty risk exposure of eSett consists of the following components:

      1. Delivery hours for which the settlement amounts have been invoiced but not yet paid

      2. Delivery hours for which the settlement amounts are known but not yet invoiced

      3. Delivery hours during which the BRP has been active but the imbalances are unknown; only trade, production plans and imbalance adjustments are known

      4. Delivery hours in the future during which the BRP will be active, but for which there is no information yet about the BRP’s activity; This component needs to be considered as well since there is the risk that a distressed BRP might cease to honor its commitments in the electricity market and accumulate significantly higher imbalances than normally until the point when this is noticed and the accumulation of further imbalances can be prevented.

      At the time of calculating the collateral, finalized settlement data is only available for components 1 and 2. The total exposure will therefore have to be estimated based on the best available data for this purpose.

      • 9.3.1. Standard Formula

        Under normal circumstances, the collateral requirement of a BRP is calculated according to the following standard formula:

         

        Collateral Requirement = 3×(S1 + S2) + m×(V1 + V2)×P

        Where:

        S1 = Average of the sums of invoiced production fees, consumption fees and consumption imbalance fees per week for the last three invoiced weeks, including any VAT on these amounts that the BRP is liable to

        S2 = Average of the absolute amounts of the sums of invoiced production and consumption imbalances in a week for the last three invoiced weeks, including any VAT on these amounts that the BRP is liable to. (How this is calculated: First we sum up the bought and sold production and consumption imbalance in a week. Then we take the absolute amount of this sum. This is done for the last three invoiced weeks. Then we calculate the average of these absolute amounts.)

        V1 = Consumption volume the last seven settled days (current day minus 20 days to current day minus 14 days)

        V2 = Bilateral and PX Market day-ahead sales volumes during the last seven days for which such volumes are available (current day minus 8 days to current day minus 2 days)

        m = Multiplier:

        -3/7 for the share of (V1+V2) that does not exceed 80,000 MWh
        -1/7 for the share of (V1+V2) that exceeds 80,000 MWh but does not exceed 400,000 MWh
        -0 for the share of (V1+V2) that exceeds 400,000 MWh

        P = Average of the consumption imbalance prices in the different MBAs during the last seven days for which such prices are available (current day minus 7 to current day minus 1), where the price of each MBA is weighted according to the share of the BRP’s total turnover (consumption, PX Market sales and bilateral sales) during the last three invoiced weeks that took place in the respective MBA

        The first term of the formula [3×(S1 + S2)] provides an estimate of all the outstanding settlement amounts that have accumulated until the current day but not been paid yet. The length of the period with amounts outstanding varies during the week but is approximately three weeks on average. For the last two of these weeks, the settlement data is not finalized yet and therefore not available for use in the calculation of the collateral requirement. The collateral requirement is instead calculated based on the invoice data from the three last invoiced weeks, which means that the collateral requirement is mostly based on data that is older than the outstanding settlement amounts.

        Therefore, the collateral requirement does not directly represent the actual outstanding amounts at the time of calculation but is rather an estimate of what these amounts might be based on the available data. In this estimation, we must follow the uncertainty principle and take the absolute amount of the invoiced imbalance amounts. Even if the invoice amount was negative in one of the invoiced weeks, i.e. representing a receivable of the BRP from eSett, which in principle would not require any collateral, the currently accumulating imbalances that the collateral should cover might as well occur in the opposite direction.

        The second term of the formula [m×(V1 + V2)×P] provides an estimate of the forward-looking component of the exposure, i.e. the imbalances that a misbehaving BRP may accumulate from this point onwards until the point when the irregular behaviour can be identified and the accumulation of further imbalances prevented. The calculation is based on the worst-case assumption that the whole turnover of the BRP may turn into imbalance.

        The length of the forward exposure is approximately one day during the week but increases to three days on Friday since the same amount of monitoring does not take place during weekends. The formula therefore counts with three days of exposure (multiplier 3/7) for volumes up to 80,000 MWh. For the share of the volume that exceeds 80,000 MWh, a smaller multiplier of 1/7 is used. This is mainly because any possible misbehaviour of larger BRPs is easier to recognize and thus quicker to prevent. The volume used in the calculation is capped at 400,000 MWh in order to prevent excessively large collateral requirements for the largest BRPs.

        Minimum collateral requirement is 40 000 € per country and it can not be compensated by collateral in another country. If calculated collateral requirement is lower than the minimum requirement, then the minimum requirement will be used.

      • 9.3.2. Deviations from the Standard Formula

        In certain situations when the standard formula does not appropriately reflect the counterparty risk, eSett may adjust the collateral requirements to better reflect the prevailing risk. The following are examples of situations when this is necessary to do:

        a) Public holidays – When the invoicing or payment of outstanding settlement amounts will be delayed due to public holidays, this will lead to the accumulation of exposures from a larger amount of days than normally before payment can take place. The forward-looking risk will also increase if there is a larger number of days than usually when normal monitoring cannot take place. In these cases the standard formula is adjusted to account for the exposures from the additional days in the settlement process.

        b) Delays in payments – Sometimes there may be an apparent risk that the invoicing or payment of outstanding settlement amounts may be delayed, for example due to labor disputes affecting banks or other institutions that are part of the settlement process. In such cases the standard formula is adjusted to account for the exposures from the estimated number of additional days in the settlement process.

        c) Market changes – Sometimes when substantial changes have taken place or can be expected in the PX Market or Regulation Power Markets, the quoted prices in these markets may no longer be representative of current or future price levels. In such cases the standard formula is adjusted by replacing the average regulation market price from the last seven days with an estimated price that better reflects the current or expected price levels.

        d) Delays in PX market calculation – If NEMO is unable to calculate the following day’s results in a normal order, then higher imbalance amounts and regulation prices can be expected. In such cases the PX Market program is copied from the last usable day and used for the following day and the collateral formula and regulation price are adjusted to cover the increased settlement risk.

        There are also situations when the standard formula is not applicable for a particular BRP or does not appropriately reflect the counterparty risk of the BRP. In such situations, eSett may calculate the collateral requirement for the BRP according to a different formula, which better reflects the counterparty risk prevailing in that particular situation. The following are examples of situations when this is necessary to do:

        a) New BRP – When a new BRP enters the market, eSett will calculate a preliminary collateral requirement based on documentation of planned balance, expected volumes of trade and consumption, and credit rating, if any. The minimum amount of collateral for a new BRP is 40,000 EUR.

        b) BRP with changed portfolio – When a BRP’s portfolio undergoes substantial changes, for example as a result of a merger, acquisition or divestment, the BRP must provide eSett with necessary information of expected changes in traded volumes, based on which eSett will calculate an adjusted collateral demand. The volume parameters in the calculation are adjusted to cover any uncertainty pertaining to the change in the balance responsibility. The standard collateral formula will be used again when an adequate amount of trade has been completed with the new portfolio.

        c) Participant in shadow auction – Some BRPs participate in shadow auctions that are used to allocate cross-border capacities on the NorNed link in case of technical problems at the European Market Coupling Company (EMCC). These BRPs are provided with an additional fixed-term collateral requirement that correspond to the additional settlement risk.

        d) BRP with erroneous volume data – Sometimes there may be known errors in the volumes reported by a BRP, which cause substantial errors in the collateral requirement for the BRP. In such cases the imbalance volumes can be adjusted to the imbalance volumes of the last two settled weeks.

        e) BRP in financial distress – When there are signs that a BRP is in financial distress, i.e. there is evidence of an increased risk that the BRP may not be able to meet its financial obligations towards eSett, eSett will take necessary actions to minimize the risk of credit loss. In such cases eSett will calculate a new specific collateral requirement based on the following:

        • Documentation of planned balance
        • Documentation of conditions for continued operation
        • Trading behaviour
        • Credit rating

    • 9.4. Collateral of BRPs operating in multiple countries

      If a BRP operates in multiple countries, eSett will publish a single collateral requirement for the BRP, which covers the counterparty risk arising from the BRP’s operations in all these countries. This collateral requirement is the sum of the individual collateral requirements for each country, which are calculated as described in chapter 9.3 based on the BRP’s invoices and data for respective country.

      If the BRP has different settlement accounts per country, the account balance of each settlement account is taken into account as collateral. The sum of all individual collateral deposits must meet the collateral requirement.

    • 9.5. Currency treatment

      All collateral requirements are calculated and published in euro. Cash collateral and on-demand guarantees can be denominated in euro, Norwegian krone (NOK) or Swedish krona (SEK). For the purpose of collateral monitoring, the value of any collateral denominated in NOK or SEK is converted to euro using the latest available reference rates from the European Central Bank.

    • 9.6. Collateral Management Procedures

      Collateral requirements are calculated by eSett each Monday and published in the Online Service by 13 CET on Monday. eSett will further monitor the risk exposures during the week and recalculate the collateral requirements if necessary. If collateral requirements are updated during the week, eSett will publish the updated collateral requirements by 13 CET on that day. The BRPs shall check their collateral requirement in the Online Service on a daily basis and arrange for additional collateral with their settlement bank whenever necessary.

      The BRP must provide sufficient collateral to meet the collateral requirement during the day when the updated collateral requirement was published. Any additional Cash Collateral shall be transferred to the settlement account during the banking day so that it gets included in the account balance of that day. Any additional on-demand guarantee shall be provided to eSett by 15 CET.

      To be able to monitor the collaterals, eSett will retrieve the account balances of the BRPs’ settlement accounts from the settlement banks on a daily basis. When needed, the settlement banks will also confirm to eSett any changes in the posted collaterals during the day.

    • 9.7. BRPs with Insufficient Deposited Collateral

      If a BRP should fail to provide the required amount of collateral within the required time frame, this is considered a material breach of the Imbalance Settlement Agreement. If such a breach occurs, eSett in cooperation with the concerned TSO(s) have the right to take any necessary action to prevent losses and safeguard the power system. The BRP will be contacted and asked to urgently clarify its situation. If the BRP is unable to remedy the deficiency in its collateral, this will lead to the immediate termination of the Imbalance Settlement Agreement with the BRP and the exclusion of the BRP from the electricity market.

    • 9.8. Release of Collateral

      If the amount of collateral provided by the BRP exceeds the collateral requirement, the BRP may request from eSett that the exceeding part of its collateral is released. Such requests can be made through the Online Service on any day of the week. If the request is valid, eSett will instruct the BRP’s settlement bank to transfer the funds to BRP’s other account. The settlement bank will not allow the BRP to withdraw any funds from its settlement account.

      The BRP has to inform eSett about the account to be used for releasing the excess collateral. The collateral release account will be updated by the BRP through Online service at the same time as the settlement account (see chapter 8.4 about updating the settlement account). The BRP will also send eSett the Standard payment instructions signed by the signatory authorized to act on behalf of the BRP. eSett compares the Standard payment instructions with the collateral release account number updated through Online service. After verifying the release account number this way, eSett approves of it in the system.

      If the Imbalance Settlement Agreement is terminated, eSett is entitled to withhold the collateral until the BRP has fulfilled all its obligations under the agreement and if necessary, to use the collateral to cover any unsettled commitments that the BRP is unable to fulfil. Any remaining collateral will be released to the BRP after the final settlement has been performed.

    • 9.9. Monitoring of Settlement Banks

      In addition to managing the counterparty risk vis-à-vis BRPs, eSett also needs to ensure that the settlement banks are able to fulfill their roles in the settlement process. eSett also needs to safeguard against the risk that the failure of a settlement bank could get to disrupt the imbalance settlement. For this purpose, there are certain requirements that a bank must fulfill in order to be approved as a settlement bank for the imbalance settlement:

      • The bank needs to be rated by at least one of the three major rating agencies (Fitch, Moody’s or Standard & Poor’s) and the rating (or the majority of the ratings, if several) must be on A level¹.
      • If the Settlement Bank is rated by several agencies, at least half of the ratings must be on the aforementioned level and the lowest rating must be at least BBB+ (Fitch, Standard & Poor’s) or Baa1 (Moody’s)
      • The bank needs to commit to executing the requests for transfers that eSett issues through its main bank
      • The bank needs to commit to reporting the BRP’s account balances to eSett
      • The bank needs to have the technical capabilities to exchange the necessary messages with eSett’s main bank for the request for transfer and balance reporting services
      • The bank needs to sign necessary agreements with eSett and eSett’s main bank

       

      eSett monitors the credit ratings of the settlement banks as well as the services performed in order to ensure that the banks comply with the requirements of the Imbalance Settlement. If a settlement bank is unable to maintain the required credit rating or to provide the agreed services in an adequate manner, eSett will take steps to exclude the bank from the list of approved settlement banks and the BRPs that have used this bank will have to move their settlement accounts and collaterals to another approved settlement bank.

      If there are signs of non-compliance with the requirements, the bank will first be placed on a watch list. The watch list is published in the Online Service to give concerned BRPs pre-warning that they should prepare for the possibility that the bank may get excluded from the list of approved settlement banks. If a settlement bank gets excluded, the BRPs need to complete the move to another approved settlement bank within three months.

       

      ¹Standard & Poor’s: long term rating at least “A”
      Moody’s: long term rating at least “A2”
      Fitch: long term rating at least “A”

  • 10. Communication

    This chapter presents how the communication between stakeholders in the Nordic Imbalance Settlement is arranged. The different communication channels with eSett and the reporting provided by eSett are presented.

    The communication between market participants and eSett is enabled largely by eSett’s imbalance settlement IT system which is the core of eSett’s activities. The main communication channels to and from eSett are the Messaging service, Online Service and the Information Service. Content-wise the communication is mainly of sharing settlement data between required stakeholders, but also of various reports with information on the imbalance settlement and the performance of the market.

    A common data communication standard for the market messaging has been developed for the NBS (see chapter 10.4 for further information). The purpose of the common messaging standard is to ensure that imbalance settlement information exchange of plans, trades, deliveries and meter readings is based on the same communication technology and formats in order to distribute the settlement information fluently between all market participants in the Nordic countries.

    The Online Service is the primary interface towards BRPs and other market participants. Settlement information from eSett is published to the service, in order for market participants to view and download the information they are entitled to. The Online Service consists of both a public part, where public settlement information is published, and a restricted part that requires login and contains settlement information that only the respective market participants can view. BRPs can also send information to eSett via the Online Service and for example manage their collaterals and invoice information. In addition, it is possible to extract published data and order data packages from the service.

    All basic needs for settlement data from eSett are covered with automatic data flows from messaging service and data packages, described in chapter 10.2. In addition, eSett offers Market Participants the possibility to download new or updated settlement data from the imbalance settlement IT system directly to their own IT systems through Information Service. The Information Service is established as a machine-to-machine connection between market participant’s and eSett’s system. To be able to utilise the Information Service, the market participants must first be authorised according to eSett requirements. The market participants can download time series data through the Information Service and only such data that the market participant is entitled to view. More information regarding Information Service can be found in the document Communication Guidelines, placed at eSett’s web page (https://www.esett.com/materials).

    • 10.1. Messaging Service

      Messaging Service enables eSett and Market Parties to exchange messages necessary for the Settlement process. It is used both for inbound messages, such as meter values sent from the DSOs, and outbound messages, such as the settlement result to the BRPs. In order to ensure that imbalance settlement information exchange is based on the same communication technology and formats, a common data communication standard has been developed, which is presented in chapter 10.4.

      eSett will communicate via SMTP, FTP or webservice when messages are sent to and from eSett by messaging service. Swedish and Norwegian market participants will use SMTP, Finnish market participants will use FTP, SMTP or web service.

      Functionality for sending structure data from the market participants to eSett via messaging service are under development, but will not be implemented before Go-live.

    • 10.2. Data Packages

      Data packages are a functionality that enables market participants (BRPs and DSOs) to receive settlement data by subscription. eSett defines the content of a data package and also defines when the data packages will be compiled and sent out automatically. After this, eSett adds the newly defined data package to the list of available data package on the Online Service. The market participants can then go to the Online Service and “order/subscribe” the data package. According to the distribution schedule that eSett has defined, the eSett settlement system compiles and sends the packages via messaging service. The data packages are created per market participant role so that each package is populated only with the data that the market party is entitled to see. Generally, data packages will be sent to the market participants on daily basis, hourly granularity and include settlement data from open imbalance settlement period as well as the final data for closed settlement period.

      Data packages are divided into “specific” and “generic”. The specific data packages will utilize the same data flows as Information Service and those are presented in the Communication Guidelines. The generic data packages will utilize generic format (e.g. most of the settlement aggregation time series will use the generic data format). The generic format will be defined in the Communication Guidelines later.

      The Specific and generic data packages are presented in the tables below.

      table28datapackage

      Table 28 Specific Data Packages

      table29datapackage

      Table 29 Generic Data Packages

    • 10.3. Information Service

      eSett gives market participants the possibility to retrieve settlement data (time series data) from an Information Service. The Information Service is established as a system-to-system connection between market participant and eSett.

      The service is established as a web service, which provides the possibility for data requesting and transfer but also capabilities for information security; secure connection between two system and tools for market participant’s authentication and authorisation. If the market participant wants to use the Information Service, it needs to set up the connection with eSett.

      The market participants must first be authorised to use the Information Service. After authorisation a market participant can fetch time series data through the Information Service. Market participant can only fetch data that the party is entitled to view, as instructed in the regulations.

      The market participant’s IT system can send a request for MEC data to the Information Service in order to receive it. A market participant can for example order following MEC data: detailed production plans, detailed reserves data, settlement data, settlement results or imbalance prices. The Information Service provides the requested data to market participant’s system if the requested data is available.

      The information that can be sent and received via the Information Service is shown in Table 30.

      s96

      Table 30 Available information service tasks per market participant.

      Detailed information regarding the Information Service interface and the supported data flows can be found in the Communication Guidelines, published on eSett’s web page (https://www.esett.com/materials/)

    • 10.4. Data Communication Standards

      The common file format syntax will be based on ENTSO-E and ebIX ®. Definition of the utilised file format is specified in the document “A market model for data exchange, Business Requirement Specification for Data Exchange in NBS (BRS). The focus of the BRSs for the Nordic Balancing System is the business aspects of the document exchanges. The latest version of the document can be found at https://www.ediel.org/.

      Market participants responsible for reporting data to eSett are obliged to use the common standard, as stated in section 5.1 Reporting requirements.

      The TSOs have prepared a user guide for NBS. The User Guide for XML documents for NBS is a detailed User Guide for the ENTSO-E and ebIX® XML documents used in the Nordic Balancing System. The focus of the document is the technical aspects of the documents to be exchanged. In addition, NEG has also prepared a document with XML schemas and examples. The latest version of the documents can be found at https://www.ediel.org/.

      During the transition phase when the new file format is taken into usage, the old file format and the new file format will be used side by side for some time.

      • 10.4.1 Data Communication encryption

        Communication towards eSett can be  encrypted or non-encrypted and towards market parties it is configured based on capabilities of receiving party. The supported protocols (WS, FTP, SMTP) allow authentication and encryption of the data exchange using either TLS or SSH. The process of authentication and encryption is completely controlled by the transport technology (and underlying libraries), the security information (username/password) are passed to these technologies by means of specific configuration.

      • 10.4.2 The Communication Coding Schemes for the Market Participants

        The market participant is required to use one single coding scheme per country towards eSett in all communication. This can be for example EIC, GS1 codes or a code based on a national scheme. If a market participant is active only in a one country it can use the national coding scheme, but if market participant is active in more than one country it has to use EIC or GS1. If market participant is active in Norway GS1 (GLN) code must be used. Detailed communication coding schemes are described in the BRS, which can be found at https://www.ediel.org/.

        As stated in the chapter 3, for unbundling reasons the retailer and distribution system operator businesses are separated to own companies and it is necessary to model them as two separate companies also in NBS model and eSett´s imbalance settlement system. Consequently, these companies cannot utilize same market participant codes.

        For messaging and data exchange purposes a coding scheme and market participant code will be determined for each market participant role.

        In Norway and Sweden, the same market participant code can be used for RE and BRP roles that are connected to the same company. If there’s a DSO role connected to the same company, it need to use different market participant code for that role.

        In case of service providers, it is defined for which market participants the service provider provides the imbalance settlement services. When service provider sends messages to eSett (as a service to its customer) it will use the market participant codes based on its customers’ role and not service provider’s own code.

        In Finland the same market participant code can be used for roles that are connected to the same Company. E.g. A balance responsible company in Finland can use the same market participant code for its BRP and RE roles as well as for its DSO role for its non-concessional grids (e.g. production metering grid areas).

        Fingrid is a responsible issuing body for giving national and EIC coding schemes for the market participants and GS1 Finland Oy is an issuing body for giving GS1 coding scheme in Finland. In a situation where a Finnish market participant is active in more than one country in NBS the Finnish market participant has to use either EIC or GS1, the same market participant will use national coding scheme in the retailer market in Finland.

    • 10.5. Online Service

      The Online Service is eSett’s main communication tool and primary interface to market participants and other stakeholders. The Online Service consists of a public part, where public settlement information is published and viewed without login or authentication, and a restricted part that requires login and contains settlement information that only the respective market participants can view.

      Settlement information from the imbalance settlement IT system is published at the Online Service, so that market participants and other stakeholders can view and download the information they are entitled to see. The Online Service will also provide functionality for update of structure information and upload of settlement data. The user will also be able to monitor messaging related to the market participant.

      • 10.5.1. Public Part

        The public part can be accessed without a user account or authentication. The information provided here will give basic knowledge about imbalance settlement and the companies involved in it.
        The public part of the Online Service contains information presented in Table 31. Public information regarding the BRPs of REs in different MGAs is an open issue in Sweden

        s97

        Table 31. Information in public Online Service.

      • 10.5.2. Restricted Part

        The restricted part will focus on the needs of the companies (and market participants) that are involved in the imbalance settlement and provide them with all the data that are included in their settlement. The market participants will be able to have the complete overview of the imbalance settlement input and result, thus enabling them to perform a full verification over their entire settlement.

        The market participants and their service providers will be able to send / update information to eSett’s imbalance settlement IT system. This includes both time series and structure data. Functionality for management of their collaterals and invoice information is also provided and it is possible to download data in different forms. The tasks that market participants can perform in the Online Service are presented in Table 32.

        s98

        Table 32. Online Service features for market participants.

      • 10.5.3. Online Service User Account

        Each Online Service user must have a personal user account with login and password information to access the restricted part of the service.

        • 10.5.3.1. Online Service Administrator

          Each company (or market participant) has to have an Online Service administrator. The administrator has default access to all market parties and functionalities related to the user’s company.

          This user is allowed to create, approve, view, update or deactivate users of the user’s company and assigns the correct roles and access rights.

        • 10.5.3.2. To Create a New Account

          The first user of the company has to be manually registered by eSett. This user will be given the administrator role for the company.

          The administrator from the company creates the following users in the Online Service. The following information is required for a user account:

          • Name and title
          • Contact information (e-mail, mobile, instant messaging address, address)
          • Company: market participant or service provider
          • Task of Online Service user
          • Which market participants’ information the user requests to see (can be e.g. multiple BRPs)

           

          The companies’ administrator assigns the correct roles and access rights.

          After the user account is created, an automatic invitation is sent to the new Online Service user with a password.

        • 10.5.3.3. Access Rights

          The access rights to the settlement information are strictly regulated by the Nordic regulators and the IT system’s access management supports the regulation on this point. Following access rights are defined:

          • Primary Access Right – access right to market parties of the user’s company.
          • Secondary Access Right – access right to market parties that the user’s company provides services to. These are relevant only for users of service provider companies.

           

          The access rights are connected to the following marked party groups:

          • Market Activity Group – BRP and RE MPs.
          • Grid Activity Group – DSO MPs.

           

          Due to the unbundling rule, a user is only allowed to switch between marked parties within one marked party group after logging in.

          • On user level it is decided whether the user has only read or read and write rights.

        • 10.5.3.4. User Roles

          User role allows user to give access to predefined sets of functionality of the Online Service. A market party can have service providers linked to these different roles.

          • Market Role: Allows the user to use functionalities related settlement structures and MECs of one market party.
          • Collateral Role: Allows the user to use functionalities related to bank accounts and collateral deposits.
          • Invoice Role: Allows user to use functionalities related to invoices.
          • External interface role: Allows the users to insert messages directly into the service

    • 10.6. Example of Information Access Rights in the NBS Model

      The example in Table 33 shows what settlement information regarding MGAs the BRPs, DSOs and REs can view and update in the proposal for the NBS model.

      The example in based on the assumption that:

      • BRP1 is a BPR for
        • RE1 consumption in MGA1
        • RE2 production in MGA1
        • RE3 losses in MGA1
        • BRP1 imbalance in MGA1
        • RE2 consumption in MGA2
        • BRP1 (as a RE) consumption in MGA2
      • BRP2 is a BRP for
        • RE4 production in MGA2
        • RE5 losses in MGA2
        • BRP2 imbalance in MGA2

      Slide25

      Table 30. The NBS models impact on information

    • 10.7. eSett’s Reporting

      eSett provides both public and restricted reports in accordance with the reporting responsibility. The market participants can also order so called data packages from eSett. The subscriptions are managed through the online service.

      There will probably be four different versions of each data package:

      • Preliminary (containing data from an open period)
      • Final (containing data from a closed period)
      • Invoiced (containing data from an invoice period)
      • Corrected (with corrections done after invoicing)

       

      Reports available for market participants are statistics report to externals, KPI reports, transparency reports, reports to regulators, financial reports and settlement data packages (presented above).

      The reports are either one-time reports or regularly compiled and distributed reports. If the report is compiled and distributed regularly, eSett defines the frequency for that. Some of the reports are not stored in the system after they have been compiled. Report’s distribution channel can be; manual retrieval and/or distributed automatically (sent and/or published).

  • 11. Market Behaviour Reporting

    This chapter describes how eSett monitors the electricity market and market participants, by collecting settlement information and utilising Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to follow-up and to enhance the quality of different aspects of the electricity market.

    The monitoring of market (and market participant) behaviour is one of the tasks of eSett, for which there are three main objectives; firstly, to monitor that BRPs’ imbalances are kept as low as possible, secondly to monitor possible market abuse and thirdly to mitigate the counterpart risk which eSett has towards each of the BRPs.

     

    To perform above tasks eSett collects required settlement information and calculates key performance indicators (KPIs) which evaluate the market performance of different market participants (mainly BRPs and DSOs). After data is collected it is compiled and presented to the public in a transparent and equal way; by publishing a list of public KPIs and company specific KPIs, where market participants can see their KPI ranking in comparison to other market participants and the best performers.

     

    Differences in national practices will be taken into account when analysing the KPIs. For example the difference between AMR and non-automated metering is taken into account in calculation of the KPIs, depending on the settlement structure.

    Regulators, national TSOs and eSett work in collaboration to impose sanctions on BRPs who have systematic imbalances and DSOs who fail to deliver quality data within applied reporting time frames. If the performance is insufficient, eSett takes actions by dialogue with the respective market participant to investigate the reason and seek out possibilities for enhancement. If the dialogue ends in a state where the performance is still found unacceptable, other actions and possible sanctions can be placed for the market participants, for example termination of the imbalance settlement agreement in case of a BRP.

    • 11.1. Monitoring

      eSett is responsible for monitoring BRPs’ performance. In the monitoring process data is gathered for calculating KPIs and evaluating the BRPs’ and DSOs’ performance. eSett evaluates the outcome and identifies which market participants are underperforming, misusing their market power or conducting other unprofessional misbehaviour e.g. in the regulation power market.

      If KPIs show that, for example, a certain BRP’s imbalance is constantly on an insufficient level, eSett can take action to terminate the imbalance settlement agreement of this BRP.

      All KPIs are published at the Online Service for BRPs, DSOs and other market participants to review and compare their position with other participants.

    • 11.2. Key Performance Indicators

      KPIs are utilised to measure the performance of different market participants. KPIs are a transparent way to display how TSOs, DSOs, BRPs and REs carry out their respective responsibilities. eSett will develop KPI that are critical for TSO to follow up the market behaviour. In addition to these KPIs, eSett will develop in co-operation with Market Participants the KPIs that help the Market Participants to improve their performance and quality.
      The following KPIs will be published:

      • DSO reporting behaviour;
        • a comparison between required time series DSO should report and how many data series are missing (quality of reported metering data)
        • a comparison of data improvement and accuracy inside the balance window
      • BRP imbalances; imbalance index for each BRP of the calculated imbalance volumes per interest period (see section 11.2.1)

       

      Detailed descriptions of KPIs will be added in later stage. The above mentioned indicators are examples of the KPIs that could be used for market monitoring.

      • 11.2.1. Imbalance Index

        Each BRP has physical obligations and rights and has to achieve a planned balance between these at the latest when Day-ahead closes for bids (to trade into balance). Through bilateral trades and Intraday trades the BRP can, until the trading deadline, restore his balance if prognosis errors are discovered after Day-ahead -closure. BRPs’ imbalance index shows how the BRPs managed their imbalances in the last reporting period.

        Monthly net imbalance should be near zero and thus not show a skewed distribution of positive and negative imbalances. As a result of the analysis the imbalances are diversified by generation and consumption imbalance and the BRPs are classified into three categories – red, yellow and green. Based on the category (see Table 34) eSett will notify the BRP for not being in balance and TSO can impose actions towards a specific BRP in analysing the causes for imbalances and in finding the ways to enhance the index (i.e. to minimise imbalance volumes).

        s104

        Table 34. Imbalance index categories.

        Detailed descriptions of other KPIs will be added later.

    • 11.3. Sanctions and Controls

      The main objective for BRPs is to stay in balance and keep their imbalances on a minimum level. For a BRP who has systematic imbalances it is possible to impose sanctions and finally terminate the contract. Bad data quality makes it difficult for BRPs to make dependable forecasts, which is why DSOs are being monitored by eSett. However it is not legally possible for any of the involved TSOs or eSett to impose sanctions on the DSOs. KPIs’ calculated by eSett are used by the national regulators to issue economic sanctions for those DSOs which do not live up to predefined minimum levels.

      eSett therefore only has the possibility to initiate the termination of the contract between the BRP and eSett. The control process has three steps:

      1. eSett evaluates the BRP performance with the help of the market surveillance data and KPIs

      2. If the BRP performance is not at an acceptable level, eSett initiates a dialogue in order to investigate the reason and possibilities to enhance performance

      3. TSOs and/or regulators can place sanctions on the BRP or the DSO

      4. If the dialogue ends in a state where the BRP performance is still found too low, the process to terminate the imbalance settlement agreement is started

  • 12. Change Log

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    changelog1
    changelog2
    changelog3
    changelog3

  • 13. Appendices

    All Handbook appendices can be found at the end of PDF document here.

    • Appendix Nordic Calendar 2017

      eSett does not perform imbalance settlement on weekends or midweek holidays, which are listed in appendix Nordic Calendar 2017 (below). List shows midweek holidays in Finland, Sweden and Norway.

      Slide23

      Appendix Nordic Calendar 2017